Amylose reacts with iodine to form a deep blue complex; amylopectin gives ablue-violet or purple color.Most of the starches have a similar ratio of amylose to amylopecin, averagingabout 25% of the amylose to 75% of Amylopectin.
The enzymes that break down or hydrolyze starch into the constituent sugars areknown as amylases.
are found in plants and in animals. Human saliva is richin amylase, and the pancreas also secretes the enzyme.
cuts starch into maltose units.
Hydrolysis of starch by mineral acid ultimately produces glucose innearly quantitative yields. The course of hydrolysis may beconveniently followed by the iodine reaction, which changessuccessively from blue black to purple to red to no reaction.
Biosynthesis Of Starch
Biosynthesis of Amylose fraction
of starch is affected by enzymes known as
. The reaction involve lengthening of priming chains ofidentical composition by addition of single glucose residues.In certain microorganisms,
is the glucose donor, and theenzyme that catalyzes the transfer is phosphorylase.Various sugar nucleotides, such as
and ADP-Glucose, function asglycosyl donor in higher plants.The following equations illustrating this reaction show UDP-glucose as thesource of the glucose residues: