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Lect 4 Starch

Lect 4 Starch

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Published by: ahsanonweb1983 on Jan 02, 2012
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STARCHES
Starch is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together byglycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energystore. It is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in suchstaple foods as
Maize (Corn) ------------- Zea maysRice ------------------------ Oryza sativaWheat ------------------------ Triticum aestivumPotatoes ----------------------- Solanum tuberosum
 
Starch constitutes principal form of carbohydrate reserve in the green plant andis to be found especially in sedds and underground organs.The green parts of plant exposed to sunlight contain small granules oftransitional starch which arise from photosynthesis. During the hours ofdarkness these are removed to the storage organs. Starch occurs in the form of
 
granules (starch grains) the shape and size of which are characteristics of thespecies as is also the ratio of constituents, amylose and amylopectin.
Composition:
 
Starch is generally a mixture of two structurally different polysaccharidescomponets Amylose and Amylopectin.
Amylose
is a linear molecule composed of 250 to 300 D-glucopyranose unitsuniformly linked by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds, which tend to cause themolecule to assume a helix like shape.
Amylopectin
consists of 1000 or more glucose units that are also connected withalpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds. However a number of alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds alsooccur at branch points. These links amount to about 4% of the total linkages orone for approximately every 25 glucose units.Because of these structural differences amylose is more soluble in water than isamylopectin,and this characteristic may be used to separate the twocomponents.More efficient separations are effected by complexing andprecipitating the amylose with suitable agents, including various alcohols. 
 
Amylose reacts with iodine to form a deep blue complex; amylopectin gives ablue-violet or purple color.Most of the starches have a similar ratio of amylose to amylopecin, averagingabout 25% of the amylose to 75% of Amylopectin.
Hydrolysis:
 Enzymatic Hydrolysis:
The enzymes that break down or hydrolyze starch into the constituent sugars areknown as amylases.
Alpha-amylases
are found in plants and in animals. Human saliva is richin amylase, and the pancreas also secretes the enzyme.
Beta-amylase
cuts starch into maltose units.
Acidic Hydrolysis:
Hydrolysis of starch by mineral acid ultimately produces glucose innearly quantitative yields. The course of hydrolysis may beconveniently followed by the iodine reaction, which changessuccessively from blue black to purple to red to no reaction.
Biosynthesis Of Starch
Biosynthesis of Amylose fraction
of starch is affected by enzymes known as
transglycosylases
. The reaction involve lengthening of priming chains ofidentical composition by addition of single glucose residues.In certain microorganisms,
glucose-1-phosphate
is the glucose donor, and theenzyme that catalyzes the transfer is phosphorylase.Various sugar nucleotides, such as
UDP-Glucose
and ADP-Glucose, function asglycosyl donor in higher plants.The following equations illustrating this reaction show UDP-glucose as thesource of the glucose residues:
 

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