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Lect 5 Inulin & Dextrin

Lect 5 Inulin & Dextrin

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Published by: ahsanonweb1983 on Jan 02, 2012
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09/16/2013

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INULIN
 
Inulins
are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types ofplants. They belong to a class of fibers known as fructans.
 
Inulin is used by some plants as a means of storing energy and is typically found inroots or rhizomes. Most plants that synthesize and store inulin do not store othermaterials such as starch.
Biochemistry
Inulins are polymers composed mainly of fructose units, and typically have a terminalglucose. The fructose units in inulins are joined by a
β(2→1)
glycosidic bond.In general, plant inulins contain between 20 and several thousand fructose units. Smallercompounds are called fructooligosaccharides.
 
 
Uses of Inulin:
Medical Uses:
1.
 
Inulin is used to help measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtrationrate (GFR).2.
 
GFR is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries intothe Bowman's capsule per unit time.
[7]
 3.
 
Inulin is of particular use as it is not secreted or reabsorbed in any appreciable amountat the nephron allowing GFR to be calculated, rather than total renal filtration.
4.
 
However, due to clinical limitations, inulin is rarely used for this purpose andcreatinine values are the standard for determining an approximate GFR.
 
Processed foods
1.
 
Inulin is increasingly used in processed foods because it has unusually adaptablecharacteristics. Its flavour ranges from bland to subtly sweet (approx. 10% sweetness ofsugar/sucrose). It can be used to replace sugar, fat, and flour.2.
 
This is particularly advantageous because inulin contains a quarter to a third of thefood energy of sugar or other carbohydrates and a ninth to a sixth of the food energy offat.
 
3.
 
While inulin is a versatile ingredient, it also has health benefits. Inulin increasescalcium absorption
 
and possibly Magnesium absorption,
 
while promoting the growthof intestinal bacteria.4.
 
In terms of nutrition, it is considered a form of soluble fiber and is sometimescategorized as a prebiotic. Due to the body's limited ability to process polysaccharides,inulin has minimal increasing impact on blood sugar, and—unlike fructose—is notinsulemic and does not raise triglycerides, making it considered suitable for diabeticsand potentially helpful in managing blood sugar-related illnesses.5.
 
The consumption of large quantities (in particular, by sensitive or unaccustomedindividuals) can lead to gas and bloating, and products that contain inulin willsometimes include a warning to add it gradually to one's diet.
Industrial use
Nonhydrolyzed inulin can also be directly converted to ethanol in a simultaneousfermentation process, which may have great potential for converting crops high in inulin intoethanol for fuel.
Calculation of glomerular filtration rate
 
Inulin is uniquely treated by nephrons in that it is completely filtered at the glomerulus butneither secreted nor reabsorbed by the tubules.This property of inulin allows the clearance of inulin to be used clinically as a highly accuratemeasure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) — the rate of plasma from the afferent arteriolethat is filtered into Bowman's capsule measured in mL/min.
 
It is informative to contrast the properties of inulin with those of para-aminohippuricacid (PAH). PAH is partially filtered from plasma at the glomerulus and notreabsorbed by the tubules, in a manner identical to inulin.

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