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e Commerce Set2

e Commerce Set2

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Published by: csampathroyal on Jan 03, 2012
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08/07/2013

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MBA IS- 4th SEMMI0039  e-Commerce  4 CreditsAssignment Set- 2Q.1 Warigon is a retail company and they want to automate the payment system. Assume that you are the designengineer of that company. What are the factors that you would consider while designing the electronic paymentsystem?
Q.2 Discuss the working concepts of EDIAnswer: Working concepts of EDI discuss the step by step process:
1.
Preparation of electronic documents
: The first step in any sequence of Electronic Data Interchange is thecollection and organisation of data by ABCs internal application systems. Instead of printing out purchase orders,ABCs system builds an electronic file of purchase orders.2
. Outbound translation:
The electronic file is then translated into a standard format. The result is a data file thatcontains a series of structured transactions related to the purchase orders. ABCs EDI translation software willproduce a separate file for each manufacturer.3.
Communication:
ABCs computer automatically makes a connection with its Value Added Network, andtransmits all the files that have been prepared. Each file is processed by the VAN and is routed to the appropriateelectronic mailbox for each manufacturer. Several manufacturers do not subscribe to the ABCs VAN, so files areautomatically routed to the appropriate network service.4.
Inbound translation:
The manufacturers retrieve the files from their electronic mailboxes at their convenience,and reverse the process that ABC went through, translating the file from the standard format into the specificformat required by the manufacturer's application software.5.
Processing electronic documents:
Each manufacturer will process the purchase orders received in their internalapplication systems.In the example, we saw the EDI process between a supplier and its vendors. The process will be similar in a widevariety of other business relationships, whether for goods or services. Now let us take a more detailed look atthese steps, to get a better idea of the range of possibilities and situations where EDI can be submitted.
1. Preparation of electronic documents:
The most demanding part of implementing EDI in any business is preparing the electronic documents. There are anumber of different methods to generate electronic documents as there are many different numbers of businessesand applications. Some methods of generating electronic documents are:Transcribing data: Data from printed reports is manually entered into a small computer based software package byusers. Most small businesses need to communicate information electronically to their customers or vendors, butthey do not have the computing resources to automatically generate information. A computer might be the onlycomputing resource. In this case, a relatively inexpensive "off-the-shelf" EDI software packages can be used. Thisrequires only a modem and a computer. Most of these products include options to allow users to generate entryforms, permitting them to enter information via the keyboard. Reformatting existing computer based data: Database products or spread sheets are commonly used by small businesses. These data processing tools can be usedto export data for EDI transactions. It is also possible with inexpensive commercially available computer softwareto read electronic report files from other applications and re-format them into data files that can be used by EDIpackages. Updating existing applications: Companies that have active application systems can consider having theapplications enhanced to generate output in a format that could be easily translated. Custom softwaredevelopment is required for this approach. The enhancement of the existing software depends on the extent of the existing software portfolio. Generation of purchase order data is done by making use of a program to readexisting files from a purchasing system and extracting the necessary information. The existing software can bemodified to create new output files.Purchasing software: If a company wants to purchase software that ensures that it will meet their EDIrequirements then it should be predetermined as an evaluation requirement. Many software vendors include such
 
capability in packages of basic software. If the capabilities are not included, then the vendor can also provide theadditional functionality at a cost that will be less expensive than in-house modifications.From the above discussion, we can arrive at a conclusion that participation in EDI trading partnerships can beaccomplished by any business. It does not require a heavy investment in computing resources, and a sophisticatedportfolio of business applications software to begin using EDI. If a company has already developed its businessapplications, the capabilities of that existing software can be enhanced to provide even more benefits.
2. Outbound translation
EDI can be simply defined as electronic exchange of data in a mutually agreed-upon format. There are numerousapplication software packages creating purchase orders, all constructed for specific needs and based on differentindustry and data requirements. Hence, there arises a need to provide a common definition of data formats.However, the difficulty of accomplishing this is evident. Twenty different companies will almost certainly yieldtwenty different definitions of how a part number should be formatted.This issue could be avoided in a simple one-to-one EDI relationship by providing the schematic layout of the datato the receiver, and simply transmitting the data to the receiver without any translation. The receiver can alter andreformat the data to suit their purpose. The sender and the receiver will agree upon a common file definition fortheir use. Many EDI relationships started out using similar methods.However, if we consider the example, ABC has several hundred suppliers, and the chance of getting them all toagree upon ABCs definition of a purchase order format is quite small, particularly if those suppliers are also dealingwith hundreds of other customers. There has to be a unique set of rules for each partnership. The resultingconfusion would quickly drive customers and suppliers to return to paper forms regardless of the benefits orsavings.The solution to this would be to have a comprehensive set of national and international standards. The standardsare developed by specific industry or business groups. The standards provided commonly agree upon formats foruse in virtually every type of business communication.Using these types of standards, information can be organised in a transaction format with definitions for theformat. An internal system or a separate software package can be used to translate data into a standard format.Irrespective of the means used for translation, the end result of the process will be an output file generated in aspecific format that any subscriber to the standard can understand.
3. Communication
Transferring data in a one-to-one EDI relationship can be as easy as connecting a modem and transferring the file.This would become impractical with more number of vendors. If a manufacturer has to send out hundreds of purchase orders each week to hundreds of suppliers, it would require many employees and a very tight schedule,to transmit all of their purchase orders. Even if the manufacturer had an extensive private network available forsuccessful transmission, it is necessary that all vendors be linked into the network.These problems can be avoided by a connection allowing receivers to access the senders systems and collect thenecessary data, but it poses a serious security issue. With careful control it will work on a limited base includingseparate hardware to isolate the system being accessed by third parties. Some companies might accept theseapproaches, but this would lead to chaos, and once again most EDI users would quickly return to preparing printeddocuments, so that they could rely on the mail to distribute all their documents.To overcome these issues, EDI users can make use of third-party network services, commonly referred to as "ValueAdded Networks" or VAN's. The VAN works as a clearing house for electronic transactions. It serves as a privateelectronic mail service. A company can send all of their purchase order files to a single destination. Each vendor'sdata is routed to their own electronic mailbox by the VAN. If the recipient of the file does not subscribe to theparticular VAN used by the sender then the transaction can be routed from one VAN to the other.The security issue is resolved by using a VAN. It allows trading partners to trade information, but at the same timeavoid giving information away. Both the parties cannot access each others systems. However, they can still freelyexchange agreed-upon information. The implementation process can be made even easier by using a full serviceVAN, which provide other services, including translation, standards compliance checking, and EDI software.
4. Inbound translation
 
The inbound translation process is the reverse of outbound translation. Once the purchase orders have beentransferred to the electronic mailboxes by the VAN, the vendor can retrieve them at their convenience. The fileswill be translated into a specific format required by the vendor's application. This is called as de-map process. Theusage of a standard format makes it easier for the vendor to recognise, which company the transaction is from,and then which type of transaction it is. Once the translation is complete, then it can be made usable in anydesired format to the receiver's internal applications.
5
. Processing the electronic document
The vendor base will range from large corporations with sophisticated application systems to small shops with onlya modem and a computer to a large manufacturer. A vendor with a highly automated process may process theinformation directly into their applications and act upon it without any interference. The small business may printreports. In both the case, and regardless of the scale, EDI can be successfully implemented. The final step is toclose the loop by transmitting an acknowledgment transaction back to the vendor.
Q.3 What are the four Ps of marketing? Explain how it is applied to internet marketingAnswer:
The four Ps - Product, Price, Place and Promotion are widely used to divide marketing. Let us now discussthe four Ps in terms of e-marketing in order to understand the full significance of the internet in marketing.
Product:
Various factors have to be thought upon by online marketers with respect to the products they sell. Themost obvious fact is that in e-marketing the customers cannot see or touch products in the same way they canwhen they visit a store or showroom. That is the reason why products such as books, CDs, and computer goodshave traditionally fared better than food and clothes. The integration of products with useful content is anothersignificant factor which needs to be considered. Internet experts term this consideration as information product,which aims at increased product value by offering relevant and exclusive information.
Price:
The internet has helped towards lowering of prices for certain products. The chances for comparativeshopping have been increased by the internet. Some online- markets like www.priceline.com allow customers toset their own prices. Lower prices are a way of encouraging customers to make their first online purchase as itinvolves minimal risk on the part of internet users. Pricing is an important factor in getting users to buy productsonline, but it is not the only factor. Websites that encourage useful information and two-way interaction are likelyto attract customers even if their prices are not low.
Place:
Location is considered as the most important factor when it comes to real world marketing. The location of a shop in a commercial area or the prestigious address of an office does have an impact on marketing success ratein the real world. However, on the internet the real world business location becomes irrelevant. Irrespective of business location you will be able to reach people around the globe. Geographical limitations are completelyeliminated but cultural differences are increased. For example, if your business is targeting international audience,you will have to consider including currency converters and options for different languages in your website.
Promotion:
On the internet, promotion of a business is completely dependent on the business owner or companyitself. There is no need to rely on advertising or print media to get the message across.The internet puts thepromotion of a companys business on its own terms. Instead of relying on advertising or journalists to get itsmessage across, it can communicate directly with its audience. For e-marketing, free marketing methods such assearch engine submissions and discussion group contributions are more effective than paid advertising. Word of mouth is one of the most powerful online promotions, referred to as viral marketing. Since, internet markets arenetworked, both positive and negative publicity can spread with great speed. The promotional message mustalways be in tune with, and must incorporate, the voice of the market
Marketing implications of internet technologies:
Internet technology was integrated with marketing practices by earlier marketers who understood what internettechnology could do. Let us now discuss some of the internet properties and their marketing implications.

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