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O Level Physics Formula Sheet

O Level Physics Formula Sheet

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Published by: FayzanAbdulWasay on Jan 03, 2012
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03/11/2012

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‘O’ Level Physics Formula Sheet
 Measurements
Base SI Units
 KgmsAKmol
 
SI Unit for mass: KilogramSI Unit for length: metreSI Unit for time: secondSI Unit for current: AmpereSI Unit for Temperature: KelvinSI Unit for Amount of substance: molar
 Number Prefix
 n (10
-9
)µ (10
-6
)m (10
-3
)c (10
-2
)d (10
-1
)K (10
3
)M (10
6
)nanomicromillicentideciKiloMega
 Kinematics
Average Speeds
=
∆d
t
Average Velocityv
=
x/ 
∆t
 
Acceleration
 
a =
v
 / 
∆t
 
∆d
= total distance travelled (area underspeed-time graph)
x = total displacement
∆t
= total time taken
v
= change in velocity
Velocity
(slope of displacement-time graph)
Acceleration
(slope of velocity-time graph)
v
= u + at
x
= ut + ½ at
2 
v
2
= u
2
+ 2ax
v
free fall
=
� 
2
ℎ
 
u = initial velocityv = final velocityt = timea = accelerationx = displacementh = heightg = gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s
2
 
 Dynamics
 Newton’s First Law
 
= 0 at equilibriumA body continues to stay in its stateof rest or uniform motion in astraight line as long as there is nonet force/moment acting on thebody.
Newton’s Second Law
 F= ma
 
The acceleration of an object isdirectly proportional to the net forceacting on it and inverselyproportional to its mass.
Newton’s Third Law 
For every force object A actson object B, object B will exert anequal and oppositeforce on object A giving rise to
Reaction/Normal Forces Resolving forces
F
horizontal
= F
r
cos
Ө
F
vertical
= F
r
sin
Ө
 
 Mass, Weight, Density
Weightw
= mg
 
w = Weightm = massg = gravitational field strength
Density
ρ
=mV
 
ρ = density
m = massV = volume
Turning effect of Force
 Moment of Force
 M = F d
 
M = MomentF = forced =
distance from force to pivot
 Principle of Moment
Σ
Anticlockwise Moment=
Σ
Clockwise Moment
 
For a body in rotationalequilibrium,Sum of ACW Moment = sum of CW Moment
 Pressure
 Pressure
 
=FA
 P = PressureF = Force over area, AA = Area
 Pressure of liquidcolumn
 
P
= h
ρ
g
 
P = Pressure
ρ
= density,h = height of liquid columng = gravitational field strength.
 Energy, Work and Power
 Work Done
 
W
= Fd
 
W = work doneF= forced= distance in direction of force
Power
 
P
= W/t = Fv
 
Work done per unit time, t
 Kinetic Energy
 
=12mv
2
 E
= Kinetic Energym = massv = velocity
 Gravitational PotentialEnergy
 
E
p
 
=
mgh
 
g = gravity =9.81 m/sh = heightm = mass
 Conservation of Energy
 E
1
= E
2
 
E
1
= Total Energy BeforeE
2
= Total Energy AfterEnergy cannot be created ordestroyed. It can only betransformed or converted into otherforms.
 
 Kinetic Model of Matter
 Ideal Gas Law
PV
∞ T
 P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
 P = pressure of fixed mass of gasV = volume occupies by fixed massof gasT = Temperature of gasSubscript 1 = initial stateSubscript 2 = final state
Thermal Properties of Matter
Specific Heat CapacityE =
m c
∆T
 
c = Specific heat capacity (Energyrequired to raise the temperature of 1kg of the object by 1 °C)m = mass
T = change in temperature.
Latent Heat
 For melting,
E
= m L
fusion
For boiling,
E
= m L
vaporization
 
L
fusion
= latent heat of fusion (Energyrequired to change 1kg of solid toliquid at the constant temp)L
vaporization
= latent heat of vaporization (Energy required tochange 1kg of liquid to gas at theconstant temp)m = mass
General Wave Properties
Wave Velocityv
= f 
λ 
 v = velocity of a wavef = frequency
λ 
= wavelength
Wave frequency
=
1T
 T = Periodf = frequencyF
horizontal
 
F
vertical
 
F
r
 
Ө
 

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