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O Level Physics Formula Sheet

O Level Physics Formula Sheet

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03/11/2012

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‘O’ Level Physics Formula Sheet
Measurements
Base SI Units
KgmsAKmol

SI Unit for mass: KilogramSI Unit for length: metreSI Unit for time: secondSI Unit for current: AmpereSI Unit for Temperature: KelvinSI Unit for Amount of substance: molar
Number Prefix
n (10
-9
)µ (10
-6
)m (10
-3
)c (10
-2
)d (10
-1
)K (10
3
)M (10
6
)nanomicromillicentideciKiloMega
Kinematics
Average Speeds
=
∆d
t
Average Velocityv
=
x/
∆t

Acceleration

a =
v
/
∆t

∆d
= total distance travelled (area underspeed-time graph)
x = total displacement
∆t
= total time taken
v
= change in velocity
Velocity
(slope of displacement-time graph)
Acceleration
(slope of velocity-time graph)
v
= u + at
x
= ut + ½ at
2
v
2
= u
2
+ 2ax
v
free fall
=
�
2
ℎ

u = initial velocityv = final velocityt = timea = accelerationx = displacementh = heightg = gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s
2

Dynamics
Newton’s First Law

= 0 at equilibriumA body continues to stay in its stateof rest or uniform motion in astraight line as long as there is nonet force/moment acting on thebody.
Newton’s Second Law
F= ma

The acceleration of an object isdirectly proportional to the net forceacting on it and inverselyproportional to its mass.
Newton’s Third Law
For every force object A actson object B, object B will exert anequal and oppositeforce on object A giving rise to
Reaction/Normal Forces Resolving forces
F
horizontal
= F
r
cos
Ө
F
vertical
= F
r
sin
Ө

Mass, Weight, Density
Weightw
= mg

w = Weightm = massg = gravitational field strength
Density
ρ
=mV

ρ = density
m = massV = volume
Turning effect of Force
Moment of Force
M = F d

M = MomentF = forced =
distance from force to pivot
Principle of Moment
Σ
Anticlockwise Moment=
Σ
Clockwise Moment

For a body in rotationalequilibrium,Sum of ACW Moment = sum of CW Moment
Pressure
Pressure

=FA
P = PressureF = Force over area, AA = Area
Pressure of liquidcolumn

P
= h
ρ
g

P = Pressure
ρ
= density,h = height of liquid columng = gravitational field strength.
Energy, Work and Power
Work Done

W
= Fd

W = work doneF= forced= distance in direction of force
Power

P
= W/t = Fv

Work done per unit time, t
Kinetic Energy

=12mv
2
E
= Kinetic Energym = massv = velocity
Gravitational PotentialEnergy

E
p

=
mgh

g = gravity =9.81 m/sh = heightm = mass
Conservation of Energy
E
1
= E
2

E
1
= Total Energy BeforeE
2
= Total Energy AfterEnergy cannot be created ordestroyed. It can only betransformed or converted into otherforms.

Kinetic Model of Matter
Ideal Gas Law
PV
∞ T
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
P = pressure of fixed mass of gasV = volume occupies by fixed massof gasT = Temperature of gasSubscript 1 = initial stateSubscript 2 = final state
Thermal Properties of Matter
Specific Heat CapacityE =
m c
∆T

c = Specific heat capacity (Energyrequired to raise the temperature of 1kg of the object by 1 °C)m = mass
T = change in temperature.
Latent Heat
For melting,
E
= m L
fusion
For boiling,
E
= m L
vaporization

L
fusion
= latent heat of fusion (Energyrequired to change 1kg of solid toliquid at the constant temp)L
vaporization
= latent heat of vaporization (Energy required tochange 1kg of liquid to gas at theconstant temp)m = mass
General Wave Properties
Wave Velocityv
= f
λ
v = velocity of a wavef = frequency
λ
= wavelength
Wave frequency
=
1T
T = Periodf = frequencyF
horizontal

F
vertical

F
r

Ө