Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
5Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Toddler and Family

Toddler and Family

Ratings: (0)|Views: 891 |Likes:
Published by Tracy

More info:

Published by: Tracy on Nov 03, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/26/2013

pdf

text

original

 
The Toddler and Family: Promoting Optimum Growth and Development
Maternal Child Nursing Care, (Wong et al.) Chpt 37 
 
“The terrible twos”
 
Ages 12 to 36 months
 
Intense period of exploration
 
Temper tantrums/obstinacy occur frequently 
Biologic Development
 
Weight gain slows to 4 to 6 lb/year 
 
Birth weight should be quadrupled by 2½
 
Height increases about 3" per year 
 
Growth is
steplike
rather than linear  
Sensory Changes
 
Visual acuity of 20/40 acceptable
 
Hearing, smell, taste, and touch increase in development
 
Uses all senses to explore environment 
Maturation of Systems
 
Most physiologic systems relatively mature by the end of 
toddlerhood
 
Upper respiratory infections,
otitis
media, and tonsillitis are common among toddlers
 
Voluntary control of elimination
Sphincter control—ages 18 to 24 months 
Gross and Fine Motor Development
 
Locomotion
 
Improved coordination—between ages 2 and 3
 
Fine motor development
Improved manual dexterity age—12 to 15 months
Throw ball—by 18 months 
Psychosocial Development
 
Erikson: developing autonomy
 
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
 
Negativism
 
 
Ritualization
provides sense of comfort
 
Id, ego, superego/conscience 
Cognitive Development
 
Piaget:
sensorimotor
and
preconceptual
phase
 
Awareness of causal relationships between two events
 
Learn spatial relationships 
Invention of New Means Through Mental Combinations
 
Imitation of behaviors
 
Domestic mimicry
 
Concept of time still embryonic 
Preconceptual Phase
 
Begins about age 2
 
Transition between self-satisfying behavior and socialized relationships
 
 
Spiritual Development
 
Spiritual routines can be comforting
 
Religious teachings and moral development influence toddler behavior  
Development of Body Image
 
Refer to body parts by name
 
Avoid negative labels about physical appearance
 
Recognize sexual differences by age 2
Development of Sexuality
 
Exploration of genitalia is common
 
Gender roles understood by toddler 
 
Playing “house” 
Social Development
 
Differentiation of self from mother and from significant others
 
Separation
 
Individualization 
Language
 
Increasing level of comprehension
 
Increasing ability to understand
Personal Social Behavior
 
Toddlers develop skills of independence
 
Skills for independence may result in tyrannical, strong-willed, volatile behaviors
 
Skills include feeding, playing, dressing, and undressing self  
Coping with Concerns Related to Normal Growth and Development
 
Toilet training
 
Sibling rivalry
 
Temper tantrums
 
Negativism
 
Regressive behavior  
Assessing Readiness for Toilet Training
 
Voluntary sphincter control
 
Able to stay dry for 2 hours
 
Fine motor skills to remove clothing
 
Willingness to please parents
 
Curiosity about adults or sibling’s toilet habits
 
Impatient with wet or soiled diapers 
Promoting Optimum Health during Toddlerhood
 
Nutrition
Phenomenon of “physiologic anorexia”
 
Sleep and activity
 
Dental health
Regular dental exams
Removal of plaque
Fluoride
 
Low-
cariogenic
diet 
Injury Prevention
 
Motor vehicle injuries: car seat safety
 
Drowning
 
Burns
 
Poisoning
 
Aspiration and suffocation
 
Bodily damage
 Kids Are Different! They are not just little adults
 
Common Problems for Age
ADULTS
Hypertension
Diabetes
Heart disease
Alzheimer's
Obesity
Arthritis
Lower back pain
Cancer 
Respiratory
KIDs
Accidents and Injuries
Acute infectious diseases
 
Resp
--Asthma
Obesity
Diabetes
Cancer 
Congenital
To recognize the abnormal you need to recognize the normal 
Be Aware of:
Developmental milestones
Physical changes with age
Normal vital signs for ages
Parental relationship with the child
Support persons
What do you know about kids?
Develop from head to toe/ proximal to distal
Organs are not as mature as an adult
They are growing and developing
Immune system is learning how to respond
Move fast, talk fast and do things without considering the consequences
Mentally fragile, need love, support and care
Nutrition
Caloric need
, (
110 to 120 cal/kg/day
 
fluid
need (formula last quarter) by kg
Routine
Vitamin supplements, fluoride supplements

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Josh_Gamboa_8244 liked this
chester liked this
saint_peter_03 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->