While this approach can be useful, it can also lead to problems since people do not notice thestructure of the problem and may not see other simpler solutions.Insight experience occurs due to a sudden release from set which is more likely to happen afterincubation in a context different from the one in which the set was formed.Thus, insight is equated with the moment of creative inspiration, and productive thinking is aninsightful mode that allows novel associations to be made.
F2 Goals and States
roblems arise when people do not see immediately how to get from where they are (startingstate) to where they want to be. Therefore, every problem has a
(or initial state) andthis is the position you begin with. The
is the state you want to achieve. Something isonly a problem if we do not know how to get from the start state to the goal state, since if wecan immediately see how to achieve the goal state it is not a problem. For each problem, thereare different types of processes or actions that enable us to get from one state to another;these are called
. State space includes every state of a problem.
roblems are solvedby finding a solution path that links the start space to the goal state.
roblems that haveidentical state spaces despite different descriptions (surface structure) are isomorphs of eachother.
Operators and procedural knowledge
The more familiar we are with the operators, the more procedural knowledge we have aboutthem and the easier they are to apply.
rocedural knowledge is knowing how to do anoperator, and if you have more procedural knowledge for some operators than others within aproblem space, you may be more likely to construct a solution path that relies upon them thanthe others. This may limit your ability to find the best (or only) solution path.
roblem isomorphs can vary in the amount of procedural knowledge they allow us to use, andso can vary in difficulty despite having the same state space.
Types of problems
roblems can differ in how well they are defined. When problems are
, the start state and the goal state are clearly identified. Furthermore, in well-defined problems the actions (or operators) which are allowed or prohibited are also known. Inill-defined (or ill-structured) problems, one or more of the parameters (start state, goal state,operators, and prohibited operators) are not known.