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Advantages and Disadvantages of Non Prob Samp

Advantages and Disadvantages of Non Prob Samp

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Published by: meggie123 on Jan 03, 2012
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Gabor Manuela Rozalia
“Petru Maior”University of Tg.Mure
 , rozalia_gabor@yahoo.com
 According to marketing, the firm should focus on the market, to a market for it, it should involve in theeconomic-social environment structures, it should syncronize its activity with the dynamism and directionsenforced by this environment development. To achieve all this, the firm needs permanent information, that isincreasingly considered lately as being an implicit part of the modern firm’s resources along with its human,material and financial resources.
 Intuitive, subjective factors
appear in the market research (and they have amajor significance) and in designing a market research it should take into consideration not only consumers’
but their 
and aspirations as well, things that are less “measurable”and are more difficult to implement mathematically or statistically but with a major importance for the firm..
 A market research based on non-probabilistic sampling methods may provide relevant and valuable information about the consumers’wishes, about their expression ways (wishes related to existing products and future wishes as well) and the sameare those providing the objective side in taking decisions by the firms’ managers.This paper describes two typesof non -/ probabilistic sampling wich can be used with succes by the romanian firms in marketing research.Key words: non – probabilistic sampling, convenience sampling, volunteer sampling
1. Non – probabilistic sampling, theoretical and practical issues
non-random sampling
is found in specialty literature with various names,
non-probabilistic sampling,oriented sampling, empiric sampling
subjective sampling
respectively but all refer to the same
i.e.the national and voluntary selection of sample units respectively, nevertheless adapted to the establishedsampling type.The non-random sampling, is less
stringent, is easier to apply, it does not involve takingrepresentativeness into consideration as the desirable purpose for the sample description. These samplingmethods usually leave the researcher to decide which of the investigated population components will beselected. As the case stands, schemes in this category are prevailingly used in case of exploratory research,examination and research carried out by the method of observation and qualitative research.Therefore, in the practice of statistic sampling, a series of non-random methods has developed depending uponstatistic population features and research objectives. These are also called
techniques of rational choice
pragmatic sampling
The main feature
of these sampling methods is provided by the “
rational choice
” of units that are subject to statistic observation. These methods are focused on assuring the samplerepresentativeness in relation to the reference population structure using a series of key features. The selectionof features is motivated by available information, as well as their implications within the research. The samplerepresentativeness is driven by the sample volume, and by the quality of data series related to the features usedto determine the population structure. Typical to these methods is that a sampling base is not necessary and theprobability that population units belong to the sample is not taken into account.To set the sample, variables that are determined by several factors are chosen: research objectives, variableschosen should be in correlation with variables studied, distribution of variables in related population must beknown accurately.The
following the application of non-random techniques are presented in tabelno. 1:
Table no. 1
Advantages Disadvantages
1.They can be used succesfully when we have no access (orthere is not) to a list of the studied population (for instance, thereis not a list of those who prefer sandwiches)1. As units are included in the samplearbitrarily, probabilities of units to access thesample cannot be calculated. As the case
9562. It is the only method that can be used when the targetpopulation is hard to be identified (hackers) or is very specific(for instance, the executive directors hired in major companies,software engineers etc)stands, the variance and estimator movementcannot be calculated3.A sampling base is not necessary 2. Because of the manner of unit samplingfrom the sample, there is no guarantee that allthe simple units of population have the chanceto access the sample4.They are less expensive than the random ones5. Allow to achieve the results more quickly than the others6. It can be adapted in the run when the research topic is difficult 3. A distorted sample can be generatedThere is not a calculation formula to set
the size of such a non-random sample
, but, especially in qualitativeresearch, it can be gradually improved, and results are also analysed gradually. When the last selected units donot bring new information, useful to study any longer, we can deduce that our sample
is saturated 
and researchis completed.Of the methods in this category, the rational techniques of generating a sample most used, the following can bementioned (figure 1): quota sampling, routes method, vaolunteer sampling technique, street surveys, randomsampling, “ad – hoc”sampling, expert sampling, network sampling (snowball) etc.As the variance and estimator movement is not calculated, the only way to evaluate
the quality of dataobtained
is to compare them with data existing from a former observation or from another sampling. Thesetechniques provide results close to random sampling, if population is homogenous, and the research (operator)intervention în establishing the sample is irrelevant.
Figure no. 1 – Main non-probabilistic sampling methods
It is the sampling method
most used
in market surveys according to several specialists, and is considered asbeing specific to exploratory sampling. Compared to random sampling it was noticed that it requests lower costsbut, for a successful method, in the process of unit selection it is recommended to use some experts, insiders of the studied population, and the profound knowledge about population and particularly of population uniformityrate. It is also recommended when, there are such kind of situations in the marketing practice and it isimpossible to meet the conditions of performing a random sampling.
2. Haphazard sampling (convenience or haphazard or accidental sampling) 
The principle of respondents’ haphazard sampling
, consists of selecting deliberately units from theinteresting population, available at a given moment and in a certain place. For instance, in a shop only people
Self-samplingNon-randomsamplingConventional samplingStandardized samplingQuota sampling„Snowball” samplingRoutes samplingVolunteer samplingHaphazard samplingEvaluative samplingType units procedure
 who are willing to provide the timestudents in the first year who attendfirst ten people attending a tournamentering a supermarket departmentThe most common method is streewhen selection is done, on location,selected, for instance of those who l
Figure no. 2
In marketing, this sampling type isin explorative research or as a preliOne of the reasons for which thisprobabilistic ones, haphazard samplmay select a sample made of availmothers, young mothers (teenagers)This sampling type is recommendebase of work hypothesis for actual
2. Volunteer sampling
The principle
of this sampling typfastness of building the sample buthaving a low control over the samplFor the first time this sampling haspractically the random principle of 
VVolunteer sampling
isdue to the selection principle, rerespectively.The advantages and disadv
1. It allows collection of a significaamount of very low cost informatio(various information)2. It applies easily (practically thereno rule to apply) and is cheap andthese are real advantages for smallfirms.957necessary to fill in the questionnary related to sampltheir classes, people at the cinema, the first ten carsent, women placed in the first row at a concert, the fitc.t interviewing of people, the representativeness ratebeing able to predict in certain situations the respondive or work in the area where selection is done.
Haphazard or convenience or accidental samplin 
used for testing a questionnary prior to its applicationinary research.sampling is used is that, apart other sampling tying is easy to implement. For instance, to evaluate a pbility and accessibility concerning employed motherand those with more than three children, thus gettingin the exploratory stages of marketing surveys andampling.is self-selection of statistical units in sample whosethat satisfies the representativeness requirement verye.been used for psychological research and for testingelecting the sample units is difficult and wrongful tosubject to
error at the highest level of all non-probaspondents decide by themselves if they participatantages of this sampling are shown in Table no. 2.
Table no. 2Disadvantages
t 1. Abatement between the values of volunteer samthose of population in general, may lead to distorte2. Distorsion is higher than in case of previous ranthe volunteer population characteris 3. People are quite different: some are more venturmore liberal opinions, different educational and prpeople have a higher need of affirmation than remsome have a lower authority, some are less convenothers are more sociable etc.ing are interviewed i.e.entering a parking, therst one hundred buyersdepending on the timent probability of beingin general population,es, and especially therogram for parents, wes, housekeepers, singledifferent opinions.may be the generationmain advantage is theseldom, the researcherpharmaceuticals wherese.bilistic sampling typese or not in samplingple characteristics andd indicatorsom sampling due toesome, others havefessional status, someining population,tional in aproach,

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