on applications and not on data.Decoupling or partitioning datais not a trivial proposition—andthis is the problem that’s at theheart o the current interest in“Big Data.” While IT has evolved and changeddramatically in the past 25 years,the main data storage paradigm—the relational database—has remainedconstant. The relational database hasserved us well over the years, acrossa variety o applications; however, itis not very good at being distributed—in more technical terms, it does nothave
. As a result, a number o new,non-relational data managementparadigms have emerged. Collectivelycalled NoSQL (which stands or “notonly SQL,” the data access used byrelational database systems), thesedatabases try to address a number o problems: managing distributeddata, real-time data, multimediadata, metadata and so orth.* As such, Big Data is less aboutbig—which is true but incidental—and more about managing newkinds o data and dealing with newkinds o data management para-digms. Among other things, NoSQLor Big Data approaches are aimedat processing very large volumeso inormation—oten in real time—that may or may not be structuredor be in one central database.
3. Everything will be analyzed
The key word here is
.Metadata—data about data, suchas who accessed it and when andwhere it came rom—is growing ata much aster rate (estimates rangerom two times to 20 times) thanthe underlying data. As your systems interoperatemore and more with third parties,there is also the problem o trustand authentication—how would you know that the application you are exchanging data withis your trusted supplier and notan imposter?
2. Everything will be decoupled
Distribution requires decoupling,and decoupling enables distribution. When applications and data are dis-tributed—that is, when they reside inmultiple places, in multiple platormsand are owned by multiple providers—they can no longer be monolithic.In the case o applications, theyhave to be modular and be ableto interoperate with other applica-tions. Fortunately, principles or modular design and standards or interoperability have emerged,matured and gained broad, industry-wide acceptance. Indeed, this wasthe intent o the last big IT hype,service-oriented architecture, whichmany now consider just that: hypewithout much substance. The truth,however, is somewhere in between.Much like the blind men describingthe elephant, many IT expertshad only a partial understandingo the challenges o decoupling.They ocused on decouplingapplications into interoperableand modular “services.” In this,service-oriented architecture hasbeen largely successul. Onlinecompanies have ully embracedSOA principles; any new businessapplication written today is likelyto be service-oriented.But SOA turned out to be onlya partial solution or decouplingbecause its proponents ocused
* To be sure, distribution is not the only orce driving the data access paradigm. The dramaticgrowth in unstructured inormation—now estimated to be 80 percent o all inormationin the world—requires new data management approaches other than relational databases,which were aimed at supporting highly structured data used in business transactions.