Reportedly, chloroform is also
the most frequently detected VOC in a national study of both ground- and surface-water sourcesof drinking water for community water systems
(CWSs).According to the NRDC, at least one sample of about
one fourth of the bottled waters bought in California (23 waters, or 22percent) violated enforceable state limits (either bottled water standards or mandatory warning levels
Chloroform is themost common THM found in tap and bottled water
; it is of particular concern because it is
listed by EPA as a probable humancarcinogen
. Twelve waters purchased in California had at least one sample that exceeded the warning level for chloroform set byCalifornia under Proposition 65, but they were sold without the required health warning.
Chlorine in our water may be a source of increased rates of cancer
. For example, "
consuming chlorinated drinking water isassociated with a 20 to 40% increase in the incidence of colon and rectal cancer
, according to the results of a Norwegian study in1992. Another study done by Harvard University and the Medical College of Wisconsin found that the
consumption of chlorinateddrinking water accounts for 15% of all rectal cancers and 9% of all bladder cancers in North America
. The study also foundthat
people drinking chlorinated water over long periods of time have a 38% increase in their chances of contracting rectalcancer and a 21% increase in the risk of contracting bladder cancer
dangers from inhaling chlorine can exceed those derived from drinking chlorinated water
amount of chloroform, themost common trihalomethane in chlorinated water, inhaled or absorbed through the skin during a typical shower may be 6times higher than that absorbed from chlorinated drinking water.Two studies in 2005 reported changes in chloroform concentrations in the blood as a result of household water use, includingshowering, bathing, and hand washing of dishes. The concentration of chloroform in the blood increased 2- to 7-fold aftershowering.
A surprising but growing concern is the effect that chlorine and other chemicals have on serotonin levels. Recent researchdemonstrates that disinfection by-products may play a role in the development of
chronic fatigue syndrome
. The chlorine emittedfrom showering and other household water use breaks down into free radicals that can lead to cancer and cardiovascular disease.