Several European countries have a policy to encourage the development of renewableen-ergy sources. This is identified in e.g. the European green paper Energy strategy for asus-tainable, competitive and secure energy supply (March 2006). In the transitiontowards a European sustainable energy system for the future and to reduce thedependency of im-ported primary energy sources such as oil and gas, the developmentof offshore wind power is an essential element. EWEA assumes that almost 120,000 MWoffshore wind power will be realized in the next two decades, amounting to 10% of theinstalled generating capaicty. Apart from offshore wind energy other offshore renewableenergy sources such as wave energy, tidal energy and some experimental technologiesof offshore energy have been considered.Recent blackouts within Europe have shown that there is a need for increased Europeanco-ordination regarding the transmission of electricity including aspects related tointerconnections. In the EU technology platform Smart Grids
, attention is paid to thenetworks of the future to ensure that they can accommodate and facilitate large amountsof renewable energy, both distributed and concentrated.Following the European Smart Grids line of thinking, Airtricity has proposed a Europeanoffshore super grid (HVDC based on Voltage Source Converter technology), combiningthe grid integration of offshore wind farms with an interconnection grid between countriesat sea. One could extend the role of this grid and connect all “ocean power” to it. Thesupergrid could then be part of the European backbone to connect and transmit bulkrenewable power from remote generation sites, even as far as North-Africa (Desertec).The goal of this paper is to discuss "Ocean Grids", grids at sea at a conceptual level. Theidea behind Ocean Grids is to provide an offshore backbone for the mainlandtransmission networks on one hand, and connection points for offshore wind powerstations on the other hand. This will include offshore wind energy and other potentialenergy sources at sea.
2. Renewable energy production trends
One of the reasons to explore offshore wind energy is the good wind resources (the windblows harder in the sea and ocean), and space restrictions on the mainland for windturbines. For this reason offshore wind power will be the most explored offshore sourcesof renewable energy. Second will be wave and tidal energy. Other sources could be so-called underwater turbines and the production of aquatic biomass at sea area to providebio-energy. New interconnections in the Mediterranean Sea – to transport electricitygenerated by solar-PV in Africa – and in the north-western European waters (sea andocean) to the hydro energy resources of Iceland, Greenland and the Scandinaviancountries provide application possibilities, though not less interesting for offshore (ocean)grids. —————————————————————————