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Compression ICCIT 2011 RAJON

Compression ICCIT 2011 RAJON

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Published by S. A. AHSAN RAJON
ICCIT 2011: An Enhanced Scheme for Lossless Compression of Short
Text for Resource Constrained Devices by
Md. Rafiqul Islam and S. A. Ahsan Rajon
ICCIT 2011: An Enhanced Scheme for Lossless Compression of Short
Text for Resource Constrained Devices by
Md. Rafiqul Islam and S. A. Ahsan Rajon

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Published by: S. A. AHSAN RAJON on Jan 04, 2012
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11/11/2012

 
 
Hn Ln`hnclf Sc`lgl akr Mkssmlss Ckgtrlssjkn ka S`krvVlpv akr _lsk|rcl Cknsvrhjnlf Flqjcls
 
Gf. _hajx|m Jsmhg
hnf 
S. H. H`shn _hbkn
 
V`l Flthrvglnv ka Ckgt|vlr Scjlncl- Hglrjchn Jnvlrnhvjknhm \njqlrsjvz Ohnemhfls`- HJ\O- F`hih- Ohnemhfls`.
Ckgt|vlr Scjlncl hnf Lnejnllrjne Fjscjtmjnl- I`|mnh \njqlrsjvz- I`|mnh':?40- Ohnemhfls`.fgrj8:50Dzh`kk.ckg- h`shn.rhbknDeghjm.ckg
Hosvrhcv
Vlpv ckgtrlssjkn js hn lmlglnvhrz cknclrn akr fhvhlnejnllrjne hnf ghnhelglnv. V`l rhtjf |sl ka ohvvlrz tkulrlf sghmm glgkrz sghrv flqjcls lstlcjhmmz9gkojml t`knls hnf ujrlmlss slnskrs akr ckgg|njchvjknhnf gknjvkrjne `hql v|rnlf s`krv vlpv ckgtrlssjkn jnvkh gkrl jgtkrvhnv hnf trlqhjmjne rlslhrc` hrlnh v`hnmhrel schml vlpv ckgtrlssjkn. Jn v`js thtlr- ul trlslnv hn laalcvjql httrkhc` ka s`krv Lnemjs` vlpv ckgtrlssjkn akr sghrv flqjcls. V`js thtlr hmsk trkqjfls h rlqjlu knrlclnv rlslhrc` kn vlpv fhvh ckgtrlssjkn. V`l ghjnvhrelv ka v`js rlslhrc` js vk trkqjfl h mje`v'ulje`v ckgtrlssjkn sc`lgl u`jc` js ckgt|vhvjknhmmz sjgtmlhnf v`l svkrhel rlx|jrlf akr ckgtrlssjne v`l sk|rclvlpv js hmsk mkulr. V`l ghjn cknvrjo|vjkn ka v`js thtlr jsv`l jnvlerhvjkn ka svhvjsvjchm vlpv rhnijne kr svhvjsvjchm ckgtknlnv chvlekrjhvjkn ujv` svhvjc ckfjne jnkovhjnjne v`l ckgtrlssjkn. Ul `hql hmsk trlslnvlf hghv`lghvjchm gkflm ka k|r trktkslf sc`lgl jn vlrgs ka ckgtrlssjkn thrhglvlrs. V`l kovhjnlf ckgtrlssjknrhvjk jnfjchvls h olvvlr tlrakrghncl jn vlrgs ka rlsk|rcl ckns|gtvjkn jncm|fjne olvvlr ckgtrlssjknrhvjk- mkulr ckgtrlssjkn hnf flckgtrlssjkn vjgl ujv`rlf|clf glgkrz rlx|jrlglnvs hnf mkulr ckgtmlpjvz.V`js thtlr hmsk jnckrtkrhvls hn lpvlnsjql hnhmzsjs kn tkulr ckns|gtvjkn akr trlslnvlf sc`lgl. Jn kqlrhmm hnhmzsjs- v`l sjgtmjcjvz ka ckgt|vhvjknhm rlx|jrlglnv lnckgthssls v`l ckgtrlssjkn laalcvjql hnf laajcjlnv 
.
 
Ilzukrfs2
 
Fhvh Ckgtrlssjkn- Vlpv _hnijne- Vztl'vk'Vkiln _hvjk (
VV_
*- Sghrv Flqjcl- FhvhGhnhelglnv.
 
J.
JNV_KF\CVJKN
Fhvh Ckgtrlssjkn js hn hel'kmf rlslhrc` jss|l jn v`lhrlnh ka Fhvh Lnejnllrjne hnf Ghnhelglnv. Ujv` v`lhfqhnclglnv ka ckgt|vlr glgkrz hnf svkrhel v`lnlclssjvz ka ckgtrlssjne `|el qkm|gl ka fhvh akr shqjne svkrhel rlx|jrlglnv `hs olln rlf|clf. Kn v`lcknvrhrz- ujv` v`l lglrejne erkuv` ka lgolfflfflqjcls- ckgtrlssjne sghmm vlpv `hs ekv gkglnv|g jnkrflr vk cktl ujv` v`l mku glgkrz ka lgolfflfflqjcls. Ckgtrlssjkn ka sghmm fhvh vk ghil v`l fhvhsghmmlr |sjne mjgjvlf ckgt|vhvjknhm kqlr`lhf hnf mkulr  trkclssjne tkulr hnf ktlrhvjne glgkrz js thrvjc|mhrmzckgtmlp hnf hmsk c`hmmlnejne hv v`l shgl vjgl olch|sl-h erlhv tkrvjkn ka lpjsvjne fhvh ckgtrlssjkn hmekrjv`gsghils |sl ka inkumlfel'ohsl- crlhvjkn hnfghnjt|mhvjkn ka u`jc` js ckgt|vhvjknhmmz lptlnsjql.Sghrv flqjcls `hql ekv vrlglnfk|s tkt|mhrjvz f|l vkjvs mkulr'cksv- hqhjmhojmjvz hnf tkrvhojmjvz. Ujv` v`lhstlcvs ka cksv- ahcjmjvz hnf rlmjhojmjvz- h nlu vrlnf ka jnvrkf|cjne v`l sghmm sjlf flqjcls ujv` erlhvlr skrvs ka ckgt|vjne hnf ckgg|njchvjne tkulr `hql lsvhomjs`lfjvs tmhcl jn v`l hrlnh ka rlclnv rlslhrc`. Jv js nku h erlhvcknclrn vk lgolf ghpjg|g nlclsshrz httmjchvjknsujv`jn v`lsl sghrv flqjcls u`lrl jv js hn lpvrlgl trkomlg vk rl'flsjen hnf trkqjfl h mku'ckgtmlp hnfmku'glgkrz ckns|gjne qlrsjkn ka v`l httmjchvjkns akr sghrv flqjcls. Cknslx|lnvmz- gksv ka v`l httmjchvjknsu`jc` elnlrhmmz rlx|jrls mhrel glgkrz hnf erlhvlr  trkclssjne stllf hrl svjmm nku |nhqhjmhoml akr sghrvflqjcls. Jn chsl ka ckgg|njchvjkn- v`js js lx|hmmz vr|l.Ujrlmlss ckgg|njchvjkn js lpvrlglmz h ohnfujfv`mjgjvlf ckgg|njchvjkn szsvlg hnf `lncl- jv js |vgksvjgtkrvhnv vk trkqjfl gjnjg|g vrhaajc kn ujrlmlssckgg|njchvjkn. Jn krflr vk gjnjgjl v`l fhvh vrhaajccknclrnjne s`krv glsshel ckgg|njchvjkn v`rk|e`clmm|mhr t`knls- ckgtrlssjkn ka v`l s`krv glsshel ghz ol h njcl tkmjcz. Akr fhvh vrhnsgjssjkn hnfckgg|njchvjkn olvulln vuk gkojml flqjcls v`rk|e`Om|lvkkv` hnf jnarhrlf- jv js hmsk laalcvjql vk `hqlckgthcvlf fhvh. V`hv js u`z9 k|r hjg js vk ghil ”s`krv‗vlpvs ”s`krvlr‗.
JJ.
S@K_V VLPV CKGT_LSSJKN2 OHSJCCKNCLTVS
Ckgtrlssjkn ka s`krv vlpv akr lnlrez cknsvrhjnlf flqjclsjs a|nfhglnvhmmz fjaalrlnv arkg ckgtrlssjkn ka `|elvlpv. Ajrsvmz- akr lnlrez cknsvrhjnlf flqjcls jv js h g|svvk gjnjgjl v`l n|golr ka rlx|jrlf ktlrhvjkns vkckgtrlss v`l vlpv jn krflr vk lns|rl nkrghm mjal'vjgl ka v`l flqjcls. Slcknfmz- sghmm vlpv ckgtrlssjkn akr lnlrezcknsvrhjnlf flqjcls js nkrghmmz qjlulf hs h g|mvj'koblcvjql ktvjgjhvjkn trkomlg ujv` v`l koblcvjql ka ckgtrlssjkn rhvjk hnf ckgtrlssjkn'flckgtrlssjkn vjgl(j.l. tlrakrghncl* hnf lnlrez ckns|gtvjkn (j.l.ckgtmlpjvz*- u`lrlhs- v`l ghjn vhrelv ka elnlrjcckgtrlssjkn sc`lgl js hc`jlqjne olvvlr ckgtrlssjknrhvjk hv h rlf|clf ckgtrlssjkn flckgtrlssjkn vjgl.V`jrfmz- elnlrjc ckgtrlssjkn sc`lgls kavln cknsjflr  o|jmfjne ka fjcvjknhrjls kn v`l amz- u`jc` jn gksvrlslhrc`ls `hs olln fjsck|rhelf akr ckgtrlssjkn ka s`krv vlpv sjncl- cknsvr|cvjkn ka v`l fjcvjknhrz kn v`l amzujmm |nfk|ovlfmz jncm|fl hffjvjknhm ktlrhvjknhm cksv kn
 
 
v`l flqjcls u`jc` s`k|mf ol hqkjflf. Ak|rv`mz- v`lglgkrz kqlr`lhf akr ktlrhvjkn hs ulmm hs akr v`lfjcvjknhrz s`k|mf ol rlf|clf hs g|c` hs tkssjoml akr ckgtrlssjkn ka vlpv akr lnlrez cknsvrhjnlf flqjclsu`lrlhs- akr elnlrjc vlpv ckgtrlssjkn sc`lgls v`jscknsvrhjnv js h slcknfhrz hstlcv. Ajav`mz- rlclnv elnlrjcvlpv ckgtrlssjkn sc`lgls cknsjflr (hnf `hqls|cclssa|mmz trkqlf hnf jgtmlglnvlf* knmjnlfjcvjknhrjls ujv` v`l trkqjsjkn ka slnfjne v`l fjcvjknhrzhmkne ujv` v`l ckgtrlsslf fhvh jn krflr vk ln`hncl v`lckgtrlssjkn. Kavln v`l fjcvjknhrz jvslma js ghflckgtrlsslf hnf v`|s- akr v`l chsls ka ckgtrlssjne mhrelhgk|nv ka vlpv- jv js olnlajcjhm. O|v jv js ka nk fk|ov- akr ckgtrlssjkn ka qlrz sghmm vlpv jv ujmm rls|mv jnvk hnlpthnflf ajml. Ajnhmmz- sjncl- v`l c`hrhcvlrjsvjcs hnfslnvlncl thvvlrn
j.l.
gkrt`kmkejchm svr|cv|rl ka sghmmvlpv js nkv v`l shgl hs v`hv ka `|el vlpv. Hs h rls|mv- v`lckgtrlssjkn sc`lgls skt`jsvjchvlf akr `|el vlpvckgtrlssjkn kavln ahjms vk ckgtrlss sghmm vlpvs|cclssa|mmz.
JJJ.
_LMHVLF _LSLH_C@2 H S\_QLZ
Jn Y85W- Ohvjsvh hnf Hmlphnfrl cknsjflrlf v`l elnlrjc trktlrvjls ka vlpv|hm fhvh hnf `lncl trktksl httmzjnen|golr ka vrhnsakrghvjkns v`hv ghil v`l rlf|nfhncz”gkrl qjsjoml‗ vk v`l ckgtrlsskr vk jgtrkqlckgtrlssjkn tlrakrghncl. V`lz trktksl v`l crlhvjkn ka knmjnl fjcvjknhrjls trlslnvjne fjaalrlnv hmvlrnhvjqls akr ukrf krflrjnes ' oz arlx|lncz- trlajp- s|aajp hnfarlx|lncz
sjl'ka'ukrf ' hnf h nlu jgtmlglnvhvjkn ka v`l Chtjvhm Cknqlrsjkn vlc`njx|l. Jn v`ljr jgtmlglnvhvjkn ka Chtjvhm Cknqlrsjkn- v`lz |sl vukamhes vk flhm ujv` ukrfs `hqjne chtjvhm mlvvlrs. Amhes v`hvlnckfl ukrfs ujv` ajrsv chtjvhm mlvvlr hnf vkvhmmz|ttlrchsl ukrfs hrl |slf jn v`l shgl uhz. U`ln v`lukrf svhrvs ujv` h alu |ttlrchsl mlvvlrs hnf lnfs ujv`mkulrchsl mlvvlrs- v`l |ttlrchsl amhe js |slf akr v`l ajrsv thrv hnf h amhe v`hv lnckfls h ukrf ujv` ajrsv chtjvhmmlvvlr js jnslrvlf olakrl v`l mhsv chtjvhm mlvvlr Y85W. V`lzhmsk hre|l v`hv- sjncl trkqjfjne fjcvjknhrz jn hfqhnclrlsvrjcvs v`l fhvh ckgtrlssjkn sc`lgl jnvk mhne|helfltlnflnv hnf hmsk ghils |ns|jvhoml akr ajmls ujv`stlcjajc qkcho|mhrz- jv js trlalrhoml vk lgtmkz v`lsc`lgls crlhvjne fjcvjknhrjls cknsjflrjne v`l jnt|v vlpvhnf httlnf jv vk v`l trl'trkclsslf ajml vk ol ckgtrlsslf.Akr sghmm ajmls- v`lz cknsjflr knmz ukrfs v`hv kcc|r hvmlhsv ?< vjgls kqlr v`l vlpv vk akrg v`l fjcvjknhrjlsu`jc` trhcvjchmmz ghils v`js sc`lgl |n|shoml akr v`l”sghmmlr‗ ajmls v`hv js v`l s|oblcv ka k|r thtlr.
 
_lclnv mjvlrhv|rl rlehrfjne s`krv vlpv ckgtrlssjkn vjvmlf”Ckgtrlssjkn ka S`krv Vlpv kn Lgolfflf Szsvlgs‗ oz_ljn
lv hm.
Y8W trktksls h mku'ckgtmlpjvz qlrsjkn ka TTG (Trlfjcvjkn oz Thrvjhm Ghvc`jne*. V`lz |slsvhvjsvjchm gkflms ujv` `hs` vhoml mlnev`s ka 81306-3?510- 1<<31 hnf 83845? lmlglnvs rlx|jrjne vuk ozvlsakr lhc` lmlglnv- u`jc` rls|mv hn hmmkchvjkn ka 3?- 16-8?0 hnf ?<1 Iozvls ka _HG rlstlcvjqlmz. Ja v`jsglgkrz rlx|jrlglnv ghz ol s|osvhnvjhmmz flcrlhslf- ulghz hc`jlql gkrl laajcjlnv ckgtrlssjkn hnf `lncl ghzghil v`l sc`lgl |shoml vk lqln qlrz mku'x|hmjvzclmm|mhr t`knls. Hnkv`lr cknclrnlf httrkhc` oz _ljn
lv hm.
js ”Mku Ckgtmlpjvz Ckgtrlssjkn ka S`krv Glsshel‗Y?W ujv` Mku Ckgtmlp hnf Tkulr Laajcjlnv VlpvCkgtrlsskr akr Clmm|mhr hnf Slnskr Nlvukris Y3W hrlqhrjhvjkns ka Y8W.V`l rlslhrc` trlslnvlf jn Y?8W lptmkjvs h gkfjajlf
 elnlvjc trkerhggjne (ET* httrkhc` akr skmqjne v`l fhvhckgtrlssjkn trkomlg.
”Ckgtrlssjkn ka Sghmm VlpvAjmls \sjne Szmmhomls‗ trktkslf oz Mhnsiz
lv hm.
Y6- <Wcknclrns kn ckgtrlssjne sghmm vlpv ajmls |sjne szmmhomls.Vk jgtmlglnv v`ljr ckncltv v`lz crlhvlf fhvhohsl ka arlx|lnv szmmhomls. @lrl- cknfjvjkn akr hffjne szmmhoml vkfhvhohsl js v`hv- jvs arlx|lncz js erlhvlr v`hn 821<444. Jnv`js sc`lgl- v`l trjghrz inkumlfel'ohsl sjl js gkrlv`hn 6444 lnvrjls jnjvjhmmz. Akr mku glgkrz flqjcls- jv jskoqjk|smz fjaajc|mv vk haakrf v`js hgk|nv ka svkrhel hsulmm hs vk ahcjmjvhvl h ulmm s|jvlf glc`hnjsg ka slhrc`jne9 u`jc` mlhfs k|r trktkslf sc`lgl vk rlflajnlv`l inkumlfel'ohsl sthn hs s`krv hs tkssjoml hnf `lnclvk rlf|cl v`l scktl ka mkkslmz c`kksjne v`l szmmhomls kr n'erhgs. Gkrlkqlr- jn akrghvjkn ka v`l szmmhomls- sthcljs nkv cknsjflrlf ujv` hnz stlcjhm cknclrn. O|v- hs jnhnz vlpv fkc|glnv- jv js h ckggkn hss|gtvjkn v`hv- hvmlhsv ?4, ka v`l vkvhm c`hrhcvlrs ghz ol sthcls- jv ghz ol h ekkf jflh vk `hql stlcjajc cknsjflrhvjkn ka szmmhomljnqkmqjne sthcls. Jn Y6- <W- hmm v`l vrhjnjne szmmhomllnvrjls hrl svkrlf ujv`k|v hnz chvlekrjhvjkn. V`js kavlnrls|mvs akr ckfjne rlf|nfhncz- u`jc` chn ol `hnfmlf ozjnvlerhvjne vlpv rhnijne kr ckgtknlnv chvlekrjhvjknsc`lgl ujv` szmmhoml slmlcvjkn.Jn v`l gksv rlclnv sc`lgl ka vlpv ckgtrlssjkn-Ujc`hjukne
lv hm 
. Y80W `hs trlslnvlf h nluckgtrlssjkn hmekrjv`g |sjne Chtjvhmjhvjkn. V`lglc`hnjsg `hs v`rll svlts2 Ajrsvmz- _lgkql U`jvlsthcl. Slcknfmz- Ckgtrlssjne fhvh vk \ttlrChglmChslchtjvhmjhvjkn svzml hnf mhsvmz- vk Flckgtrlssckgtrlsslf fhvh. V`k|e` ckgtrlsslf fhvh js lhsz vkrlhf hnf |nflrsvhnf mjil nhgjne cknqlnvjkn jn slqlrhm trkerhggjne mhne|hels- v`l ckgtrlssjkn tlrakrghncljs tkkr hnf gkrl jgtkrvhnvmz v`js sc`lgl fklsn‚v trkqjfl hnz lphcv rltrkf|cvjkn ka sk|rcl fhvh9 v`hv jsv`l sc`lgl js nkv ckgtmlvlmz h mkssmlss ckgtrlssjknsc`lgl.Jn Y8W v`l ckgtrlssjkn svhrvs akr vlpv slx|lncls mhrelr v`hn 5< Ozvls- hnf jn Y84W v`l svhrvjne tkjnv js <4 Ozvls.Ja jv js tkssjoml vk ghil v`l mkulr v`rls`kmf qhm|l jnvkmlss v`hn vln c`hrhcvlrs- v`l ckgtrlssjkn ghz rlhmmz olh ”qlrz sghmm vlpv ajml‗ s|ttkrvlf knl v`hv ghz tmhcl hnlu gjmlsvknl jn qlrz sghmm vlpv ajml ckgtrlssjknlns|rjne ”s`krv vlpv elvs s`krvlsv‗. K|r trjgl hjg js vkflsjen s|c` hn laalcvjql hnf laajcjlnv ”qlrz s`krv vlpvckgtrlssjkn‗ sc`lgl.
 
 
JQ.
T_KTKSLF SC@LGL AK_CKGT_LSSJKN KA S@K_V VLPV AK_LNL_EZ CKNSV_HJNLF FLQJCLS
V`l ghjn jflh ka v`js thtlr js ckgtrlssjkn ka s`krvvlpv rhv`lr v`hn ckgtrlssjne `|el hgk|nv ka vlpv. V`js thtlr ghjnmz trktksls h nkqlm sc`lgl akr cknsvr|cvjknka v`l fjcvjknhrz vk ol |slf akr ckgtrlssjkn ka sghmmvlpv. V`js thtlr ghils jgtrkqlglnv ka qhrjk|s lpjsvjnejflhs kn vlpv ckgtrlssjkn jncm|fjne chtjvhm cknqlrsjkn-ukrf rltmhclglnv- trlajp rltmhclglnv- arlx|lncz hnf trlajp ohslf krflrjne ka v`l fjcvjknhrz. V`l trktkslfhttrkhc` ka vlpv ckgtrlssjkn `hs olln erlhvmz olnlajvlfarkg v`l lhrmjlr ukris ka Ohvjsvh hnf Hmlphgfrl Y85Whnf Mhnsiz hnf Rlgmjcih Y5W. Sjncl- v`l sc`lgl trlslnvlf jn Y85W js akr mhrel vlpv ajmls- ul trktksl hck|tml ka gkfjajchvjkn jn Y85W vk illt jv |t ujv` sghmmvlpv ckgtrlssjkn. Jn ahcv- v`l ckrl gkfjajchvjkn mjls knv`l ohsjc thrv ka v`ljr sc`lgl u`jc` js cknsvr|cvjkn ka v`l fjcvjknhrz v`hv ahcjmjvhvls |s vk ckgtrlss qlrz s`krvvlpv. Akr cknsvr|cvjkn ka v`l fjcvjknhrz-
j.l.
c`kksjne v`llnvrjls ka v`l fjcvjknhrz- Y85W vhils knmz arlx|lnczhstlcv ka v`l ukrf jnvk hcck|nv- u`lrlhs ul trktksl hckgojnhvjkn ka v`rll thrhglvlrs akr c`kksjne v`lfjcvjknhrz lnvrjls u`jc` js h qlrz nlu hstlcv.Gkrlkqlr- v`l thtlr Y85W cknsjflrs ukrfs hs v`l ohsjc|njv- u`lrlhs jn trktkslf sc`lgl- ul cknsjflr szmmhomlshs v`l |njv ckgtknlnv ka vlpv ckgtrlssjkn. Jn Y5W- jv `hs olln trkqlf oz Mhnsiz hnf Rlgmjcih v`hv- akr ckgtrlssjkn ka s`krv vlpv- cknsjflrhvjkn ka szmmhomls jsg|c` gkrl hfqhnvhelk|s v`hn vhijne ukrfs hs v`l trjghrz lmlglnv ka fjcvjknhrz. Jn ahcv- jn k|r trktkslfsc`lgl ul |sl h smje`vmz fjaalrlnv ckncltv ka szmmhomlu`jc` ktlns |t v`l erlhvlsv kttkrv|njvz vk ckgtrlssvlpv. Ul cknsjflr omhni sthcls hs h thrv ka tsl|fk'qkulm u`jc` |mvjghvlmz jncm|fls omhni sthcls jnvkszmmhoml rhv`lr v`hn jskmhvjne hs h fjsvjncv szgokm.Hffjvjknhmmz- |nmjil Y85W- k|r sc`lgl fklsn‚vrlckgglnf |sl ka knmjnl fjcvjknhrz sjncl- akr ckgtrlssjkn ka qlrz sghmm ajmls- hvvhc`jne fjcvjknhrz (nkghvvlr- u`lv`lr fjcvjknhrz js ckgtrlsslf kr nkv* ujmmflajnjvlmz jncrlhsl v`l sjl ka v`l ajml hnf v`l ghjn hjgka ckgtrlssjkn uk|mf s|aalr. Ul trktksl h svhvjcfjcvjknhrz akr lns|rjne v`l mku glgkrz rlx|jrlglnv hsulmm hs e|hrhnvlljne ckgt|vhvjknhm sjgtmjcjvz.Akr k|r rlslhrc` jv js nljv`lr trjghrjmz jgtkrvhnv nkr ka s|trlgl cknclrn vk flckgtksl v`l ukrfs jnvk szmmhomlshcc|rhvlmz9 rhv`lr jv js k|r hjg vk elv h erk|t ka ukrfsv`hv kcc|r x|jvl arlx|lnvmz. Ul cknsjflr v`l flajnjvjknka szmmhoml hs |slf jn Y5W svhvjne ”Szmmhoml js h slx|lnclka sk|nfs- u`jc` cknvhjns lphcvmz knl ghpjghms|oslx|lncl ka qkulms‗ Y5W. V`js flajnjvjkn jgtmjls v`hvv`l n|golr ka szmmhomls jn h ukrf js lx|hm vk v`l n|golr ka ghpjghm slx|lncls ka qkulms jn v`l shgl ukrf Y5W.Gkfjajlf Chtjvhm Cknqlrsjkn akr vlpv'|njvs js gkvjqhvlfarkg v`l ckncltv trlslnvlf jn Y85W. Jv s|eelsvs vuk amhesv`hv lnckfl vlpv'|njvs ujv` ajrsv chtjvhm mlvvlr hnf vkvhmmz|ttlrchsl vlpv'|njvs rlstlcvjqlmz. U`ln v`l vlpv'|njvsvhrvs ujv` h alu |ttlrchsl mlvvlrs hnf lnfs ujv`mkulrchsl mlvvlrs- v`l |ttlrchsl amhe js |slf akr v`l ajrsv thrv o|v- jnsvlhf ka |sjne h v`jrf amhe (u`jc` uhs trktkslf jn v`l krjejnhm rlslhrc` trktksjne ChtjvhmCknqlrsjkn* vk slthrhvl jv arkg v`l mkulrchsl thrv- v`lshgl amhe v`hv lnckfls h vlpv'|njv ujv` ajrsv chtjvhm mlvvlr js jnslrvlf olakrl v`l mhsv chtjvhm mlvvlr Y85W.V`l c`kjcl ka v`l nlu sjls uhs gkvjqhvlf oz v`l ukri ka Hmlphnflr _hv|s`njhi hnf Y85W. Jn Y85W v`rll erk|tsujv` v`l akmmkujne hgk|nv ka ozvls2 04 akr v`l ajrsverk|t- 3? akr v`l slcknf erk|t hnf 81 akr v`l v`jrf-hmmkujne v`hv v`l slcknf szgokm ka v`l ckfl'ukrfgje`v ol okv` arkg v`l slcknf hnf v`jrf erk|ts. V`jsejqls h vkvhm ka 04 ) (04"3?* ) (04"81* ) (04"3?"81* 766004 ckfl'ukrfs hqhjmhoml Y85W. Hmjil Y85W- v`js sthnka v`l fjcvjknhrz js cknsjflrlf hccltvhoml hgk|nv ka vlpv'|njvs.
H. Cknsvr|cvjkn ka v`l Fjcvjknhrz
V`l ghjn cknvrjo|vjkn ka k|r trktkslf sc`lgl rlsjflsjnvk v`l nkqlm hstlcvs ka cknsvr|cvjkn ka v`l fjcvjknhrz.C`kksjne lnvrjls ka v`l fjcvjknhrz js thrvjc|mhrmzjgtkrvhnv akr `hqjne olvvlr ckgtrlssjkn- olch|sllns|rjne h ulmm krehnjhvjkn ka v`l fjcvjknhrz ujmmflajnjvlmz rlf|cl v`l slhrc` kqlr`lhf ka v`l ckfls hnf`lncl stllf |t v`l ckgtrlssjkn. N|golr ka lmlglnvs vk ol cknsjflrlf akr hcckggkfhvjne jnvk v`l fjcvjknhrz jshmsk jgtkrvhnv lstlcjhmmz akr ohvvlrz tkulrlf flqjclssjncl erlhvlr n|golr ka lmlglnvs jn v`l fjcvjknhrz ujmmmlhf vkuhrfs erlhvlr ckns|gtvjkn ka ktlrhvjne glgkrz.Ul lgtmkz v`rll thrhglvlrs akr c`kksjne hnz vlpv'|njvvk ol jncm|flf jnvk fjcvjknhrz. V`lsl hrl hs akmmkus2Hqhjmhojmjvz js h thrhglvlr jnfjchvjne v`l rhvjk ka v`lvkvhm kcc|rrlncl ka v`l vlpv'|njv ujv` v`l vkvhm vlpv'|njvsjnvk u`jc` v`l cknclrnlf fkc|glnv ghz olflckgtkslf. Ja h fkc|glnv
 F
cknsjsvs ka vkvhm
 N 
vlpv'|njvs (
4 = N 
*- hnf cknclrnlf vlpv |njv
j
(
j
 
 F
* kcc|rs
n
j
 (
4 = n
j
=N 
* vjgls- v`ln- hqhjmhojmjvz js flajnlf hs
 H
j
7 n
j
 + N 
_lc|rrlncl ahcvkr js v`l slcknf crjvlrjh akr c`kksjne hnzlnvrz vk ol jncm|flf jnvk v`l fjcvjknhrz. Jv js h nkqlmckncltv hnf jn ahcv js v`l ilz tkjnv ka hcclmlrhvjne v`lckgtrlssjkn ehjn. _lc|rrlncl ahcvkr js h glhs|rl u`jc`jnfjchvls v`l hqlrhel eht ka v`l kcc|rrlncl ka lhc` vlpv'|njv. Ul trktksl v`js thrhglvlr jn krflr vk slmlcv v`lvlpv lnvrz u`ln v`lrl httlhr h n|golr ka vlpv |njvs ujv`shgl arlx|lncz. U`lnlqlr ul `hql g|mvjtml vlpv lnvrjlsujv` shgl hqhjmhojmjvz jnflp- v`l vlpvs hrl rhnilfhcckrfjne vk v`l jncrlhsjne qhm|l ka rlc|rrlncl. V`lerlhvlr v`l qhm|l v`l fjsvhncl olvulln vuk cknslc|vjqlkcc|rrlncls js erlhvlr. Hs h rls|mv- v`l c`hncl vk olrltlhvlf jnvk v`l s`krv vlpv ka jnvlrlsv js mkulr.Ja akr h fkc|glnv
 F
v`l cknclrnlf vlpv |njv
j
(
j
 
 F
*kcc|rs
n
j
vjgls (
4 = n
j
=N9
u`lrl
 N 
js v`l vkvhm n|golr ka vlpv |njvs ckgtrjsjne v`l fkc|glnv* jnvk v`l vlpv hnfv`l svhrvjne tksjvjkns ka kcc|rrlncls hrl
 t
8
 - t
?
 - t
3
 - ‡..- t
n
. _lc|rrlncl ahcvkr js chmc|mhvls hs
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j
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