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Water Crises

Water Crises

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Published by Bilal Raja
Water Crises in pakistan
Water Crises in pakistan

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Bilal Raja on Jan 04, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The Kalabagh dam is a proposed hydroelectric dam planned be built on the Indus River by theGovernment of Pakistan. The proposed site for the dam was situated at Kalabagh in MianwaliDistrict of the Punjab province, bordering the pakhtunkha.The dam project was controversial since its inception. In December 2005, General PervezMusharraf, President of Pakistan, announced that he would build the dam in the larger interest of Pakistan. In May 26, 2008, Federal Minister for Water and Power of Pakistan, Raja PervezAshraf, said that the "Kalabagh Dam would not be constructed" and the project is now cancelled.He said due to the "opposition from NWFP, Sindh and other stakeholders, the project was nolonger feasible
The proposed construction of the Kalabagh Dam triggered a bitter controversy among the four  provinces of Pakistan, namely Punjab, Sindh, pakhtunkha, and Balochistan. The only provincewhich is in favour of this dam is Punjab, which is the strongest of the four provinces, as usuallythe government is mainly centralised in it. The other three provinces have expresseddissatisfaction: their provincial assemblies passed unanimous resolutions condemning the proposed dam. Hence, the project was still under consideration only.According to some small controversial groups, the tailender has a legal and natural right on river.However it has been nullified by Indians who are building 62 dams in Kashmir virtually dryingup all the river. They claim no dam or reservoir can be built without permission and endorsementof the tailender, i.e., Arabian Ocean.[citation needed] In the case where the tailender is not usingwater, i.e., building a water reservoir, a reservoir can be made upstream.Impact assessments of the proposed dam have shown that while it will provide storage andelectricity, the dam will also have adverse impacts on the environment, as can be expected fromany large dam.[citation needed] It will also displace a large number of people.[citation needed]While proponents point to the benefits, the adverse factors have been played up by the opponentsof the dam. As a result, the dam has been stalled by claims and counterclaims since 1984.
Punjab needs more water to keep up with the growing population and industrial demands on itsagriculture. A dam at Kalabagh would also supply cheap hydro-electric power to the wholecountry.The annual outflow of water into the Arabian Sea is considered a "waste" in Punjab, which feelsthat water can be used to irrigate infertile lands.
Punjab wants not just Kalabagh, but also two more large dams on the Indus, at Bhasha andSkardu/Katzarah. It feels that the Kalabagh site is the most favourable, compared to the other two, and that it should be built first. Bahalwalpur and Bahawalnagar will get most of the water stored in Kalabagh Dam.On the other hand, Punjab has been severely hit by Kalabagh Dam being not built. In the early1960s, Pakistan had agreed to a deal with India over the royalty of rivers. That had given royaltyof two rivers Satluj and Biyas to India. Since then, the river Ravi, Satluj and Biyas are only usedas flood Release Rivers by India. Pakistan government was allowed and funded to build this damonly because they had agreed such deal with India. Now Pakistan hasn't built the dam and hasalso barrened a large area of Punjab province by taking out three rivers.Punjab's view is that a dam of above 3GW production can finish all the energy crisis of Pakistan.[citation needed] Overall, it will help Pakistan to grow further as electricity produced bywater is cheapest compared to all other resources.Punjab has also agreed not to claim any royalty on generation of resources from Kalabaghdam[citation needed].[edit]Sindh viewpointSindh is the lower riparian and strongest opponent of KBD. But its case mainly against Punjab ismore on a conceptual basis of what Sindh thought to be "theft of water by Punjab" rather thanlocating an actual incident of theft. Sindh supports its argument by stating that by virtue of itsname and history of water rights of the province, Indus River belongs exclusively to Sindh.Therefore, claiming the construction of dams, Tarbela and Mangla and now KBD actions of theftof water at the irrigation cost of Sindh. Sindh presents many objections against the proposeddam:Sindh objects that their share of the Indus water will be curtailed as water from theKalabagh will go to irrigate farmlands in Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, at their cost.Sindhis hold that their rights as the lower riparian have precedence according to internationalwater distribution law.The coastal regions of Sindh require a constant flow of water down the Indus into theArabian Sea so that the flowing water can keep the seawater from intruding inland. Suchseawater intrusion would literally turn vast areas of Sindh's coast into an arid saline desert, anddestroy Sindh's coastal mangroves.With the construction of dams, such as Mangla Dam and Tarbela Dam across the Indus,Sindhis have seen the once-mighty Indus turned into a shadow of its former glory downstream of the Kotri Barrage up to Hyderabad. They fear that there simply is not enough water for another large dam across the Indus, let alone three.

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