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Table Of Contents

Preface
Introduction
Grammar and grammars
Studying grammar
Teaching grammar to learners of English
Objectives
1.1.2Practice in reading a phonemic transcription
1.1.3Food for thought on English spelling
1.1.4Phonemes and allophones
1.2The speech process and the organs of speech
1.2.1The airstream
1.2.2Voicing
1.2.3The oral–nasal process
1.2.4Advising learners
1.3English consonants
1.3.1Place of articulation
1.3.2Manner of articulation
1.4English vowels
1.5The distribution of English sounds
1.5.1Frequency of English phonemes
1.5.2Redundancy
1.5.3The positions that phonemes can occur in
1.5.4English consonant clusters
1.5.5Vowel sequences
1.5.6The effect of the environment in which sounds occur
1.5.6.1Linking
1.5.6.2Rhoticity
1.5.6.3Elision
1.5.6.4Assimilation
1.5.6.5Vowel length
1.6Prosodic features
1.6.1Stress
1.6.1.1Function word stress
1.6.1.2Content word stress
1.6.1.3Sentence stress and rhythm
1.6.2Intonation
1.6.2.1Intonation patterns
1.6.2.2Functions of intonation patterns
1.7Accents
1.8Learners’ difficulties with English sounds
1.8.1Common problems
1.8.2Predicting pronunciation difficulties for learners of English
2.1Categories of words
2.1.1What is a word?
2.1.2Function words and content words
2.1.3Word classes
2.1.4Word lemmas
2.1.5Word families
2.2Word meanings and functions
2.2.1Sense
2.2.2Reference
2.2.3Connotation
2.2.4Word associations
2.2.5Semantic components of words
2.2.6Prototypes
2.2.7Extended meaning
2.2.8Polysemy
2.2.9Homonymy
2.2.10Synonymy
2.2.11Antonymy
2.2.12Hyponymy
2.3Categories of meaning
2.3.1Propositional meaning
2.3.2Modal meaning
2.3.3Social meaning
2.4Word structure and word formation
2.4.1Roots and affixes
2.4.2Types of affixes
2.4.2.1Inflectional affixes
2.4.2.2Derivational affixes
2.4.3Greek and Latin affixes
2.4.4Word formation
2.4.4.1Borrowing
2.4.4.2Word combinations
2.4.4.3Blends
2.4.4.4Conversion
2.4.4.5Abbreviations
2.4.4.6Acronyms
2.5Word compounds and collocations
2.5.1Compounds
2.5.2Collocations
2.6Word distribution
2.6.1High frequency words
2.6.2Academic words
2.6.3Technical words
2.6.4Low frequency words
British National Corpus
2.6.6An academic word list (AWL)
3.1Utterances and sentences
3.2Constituents and structures of simple sentences
3.2.1Word order
3.2.2Phrases
3.2.3Clause elements
3.2.3.1Subject
3.2.3.2Predicate
3.3Clause patterns
3.3.1Major clause patterns
3.3.1.1Pattern 1: SV
3.3.1.2Pattern 2: SVO
3.3.1.3Pattern 3: SVC
3.3.1.4Pattern 4: SVA
3.3.1.5Pattern 5: SVOO
3.3.1.6Pattern 6: SVOC
3.3.1.7Pattern 7: SVOA
3.3.1.8Formal there
3.3.2Frequency information on the use of clause patterns
3.3.3Subject–verb concord
3.4Sentence types and functions
3.4.1Interrogatives
3.4.1.2Tag questions
3.4.1.3Wh-questions
3.4.1.4Alternative questions
3.4.1.5Indirect questions
3.4.2Imperatives
3.5Negation
3.5.1Meaning
3.5.2Affixes
3.5.3Other ways of expressing negation
3.5.4The use of negatives
3.5.5Focus and scope of negation
3.6Learning about clause patterns
4.1Noun identification and classification
4.1.1The forms of nouns
4.1.2The positions of nouns in sentences
4.1.3Learning noun identification
4.1.4Categories of nouns
4.1.5Countable nouns and uncountable nouns
4.1.6Grammatical number
4.1.7Grammatical case
4.1.8Irregular nouns
4.1.9Nouns which are sometimes countable and sometimes uncountable
4.1.10Collective nouns
4.1.11Proper nouns
4.1.12Quantifying nouns
4.1.13Noun equivalents
4.1.14A teaching order for noun classes
4.2The structure of noun phrases
4.2.1Premodifiers
4.2.2Postmodifiers
4.2.3Functions of noun phrases
4.3Determiners
4.3.1The main English determiners
4.3.1.1Functions of determiners
4.3.1.2Position of determiners
4.3.1.3Categories of determiners
4.3.2.3Specific reference
4.4Learning the structure and use of noun phrases
4.5Pronouns
4.5.1Personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns
4.5.2Demonstrative pronouns
4.5.3Indefinite pronouns
4.5.4Interrogatives and relative pronouns
5.1Verb identification and classification
5.1.1Lexical verbs
5.1.1.1Regular verbs
5.1.1.2Irregular verb forms
5.1.1.3Other sub-classes of lexical verbs
5.1.2Auxiliary verbs
5.1.2.1Primary auxiliary verbs
5.1.2.2Modal auxiliary verbs
5.2Finite verb forms and verb phrases
5.2.1Finite verbs
5.2.2Finite verb phrases
5.3Non-finite verb forms and verb phrases
1infinitive (or non-finite stem)
5.3.1The infinitive (or non-finite stem)
5.3.1.1Structures, functions and distribution of infinitives
5.3.1.2Meanings of to +++++ infinitive
5.3.1.3Learning to use infinitives
5.3.2-ing participles (or stem +++++ -ing)
5.3.2.1Learning to use -ing participles
5.3.3-ed participles (non-finite stem + -ed)
5.4Verb phrase functions
5.4.1Tense
5.4.1.1Expressing future time
5.4.1.2Learning to use tenses
5.4.2Aspect
5.4.2.1Perfect aspect
5.4.2.2Progressive aspect
5.4.3Voice
5.4.3.1Learning to use the passive voice
5.4.4Mood
5.5Distribution of simple and complex verb phrase structures
6.1Adjectives
6.1.1Adjective forms
6.1.2Adjective types
6.1.2.1Attributive and predicative adjectives
6.1.2.2Postpositional adjectives
6.1.2.3Compounds
6.1.2.4Stative and dynamic adjectives
6.1.3Ordering of adjectives
6.1.4Adjectives and verb participles
6.1.6Comparative and superlative
6.1.7Other ways of making comparisons
6.1.8Adjectives and adverbs
6.2Adverbs and adverbials
6.2.1Forms of adverbs
6.2.2Forms of adverbials
6.2.3Grammatical functions of adverbs
6.2.4Semantic functions of adverbials
6.3Prepositions and prepositional phrases
6.3.1Functions of prepositions
6.3.2Prepositional structures
6.3.3Prepositional verbs
6.3.6Learning to use prepositions
7.1Sentences and clauses
SENTENCES AND CLAUSES
7.2Co-ordination
7.2.1Functions of co-ordinators
7.2.2Learning about co-ordination
7.3Ellipsis
7.4Subordination
7.4.1The marking of subordination
7.4.2Functions of subordinate clauses
7.4.2.1Nominal clauses
7.4.2.1.1That-clauses
7.4.2.1.2Wh-clauses
7.4.2.1.3Nominal clauses in apposition
7.4.2.1.4Indirect speech
7.4.2.1.5Learning how to use nominal clauses
7.4.2.2Relative clauses
7.4.2.2.1Functions of relative clauses
7.4.2.2.2Restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses
7.4.2.2.3Relative clauses and adjectives
7.4.2.2.4Reduced relative clauses
7.4.2.2.5Learning how to use relative clauses
7.4.2.3Adverbial clauses
7.4.2.3.1Semantic functions of adverbial clauses
7.4.2.3.2Main conjunctions used in adverbial clauses
7.4.2.3.3Adverbial clauses of time
7.4.2.3.4Adverbial clauses of condition
7.4.2.3.5Adverbial clauses of cause or reason
7.4.2.3.6Learning how to use adverbial clauses
7.4.2.4Comparative clauses
7.5Non-finite and verbless clauses
7.5.1Non-finite verb forms
7.5.2Verbless clauses
7.5.3The structure of non-finite clauses
7.5.6.2Production
8.1Functions of texts
8.1.1Macro-functions
8.1.2Speech acts
8.1.3Form and function
8.1.4Direct and indirect speech functions
8.1.5Seeking clarification and making repairs
8.2The internal structure of texts
8.2.1Coherence
8.2.2.1Lexical cohesion
8.2.2.2Grammatical cohesion
8.3Types of texts
8.3.1Domains of use
8.3.3Purpose of the text
8.3.4Spoken texts and their characteristics
8.3.4.1Conversation
8.3.4.2Classroom discourse
8.3.4.3Silence
Useful sources of information about English
References
Key to tasks
Index
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0582506328StructEnglishB

0582506328StructEnglishB

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Published by Doan Shi

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Published by: Doan Shi on Jan 04, 2012
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