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Probability IIRatings:

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Published by juriah binti ibrahim

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/77207781/Probability-II

11/04/2012

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CHAPTER 15 PROBABILITY II

15

.1 Probability of an Event

Important concept:

•

( )( )( )

S n AnS inoutcomesof number
Ainoutcomesof number
A P

==

, where

( )

10

≤≤

A P

1. Determine the sample space for each of the following experiments.Example :a)A fair coin is tossed.

S = { heads, tails}

b)A pen is takenout at random from a bag containing a blue pen and a black pen.

S =

c) A ball is picked at random from a bag containing a blue ball, a green ball and a red ball.

S =

d)A card is picked from thefollowing cards.

S =

e)The result of true – false question.

S =

f) A number is select at random fromthe set

{ : 5 12, isaninteger}

x x x

≤ ≤

S =

2. Determine the probability of an event.a) A bag contains 7 red balls, 5 green balls and 6 pink balls. A ball is pickedat random. Find the probability for each of thefollowing events.i)A = a red ball is picked

n(A) = 7, n(S) = 18

187)()()(

==

S n An A P

ii) B = a green ballis picked

n(B) =n(S) = P(B) =

iii) C = a pink ballis picked

n (C) =n(S) = P(C) =

b) A bag contains 6 whitemarbles, 8 red marbles and12 green marbles. A marbleis picked at random. Find the probability that the marble isi)Red

n ( R) =n(S )= P® =

white

n(W) =n(S) = P(W)=

greenc) The table shows a set of numbers. A number ischosen at random from theset.101115172219162518i)Probability that a prime number ischosen=ii) Probability thatthe number chosenis divisible by 2=iii) Probability thata multiple of 5 ischosen=

Probability II

1HEBAT

d) Each vowel in the word‘PROBABILITY’ is writtenon a pink card and eachconsonant is written on a blue card. A card is drawn atrandom from these cards.Find the probability thati) a pink card is drawnii) A vowel is drawniii) a letter B isdrawne)A letter is selected atrandom from the word‘ASSOCIATIONS’. Findthe probability of selectingthe letter ‘S’ii) the letter ‘O’The letter ‘P’f) A factory has 24 male and16 female workers. If aworker is selected atrandom, find the probability thati)a maleworker is selectedii) a female worker is selectediii) If 4 femaleworkers leave thefactory and, then,a worker isselected, find the probability that afemale worker isselected.3. Determine the number of objects.Example:

a)

A bag contains 36cards. The probability of getting a blue card fromthe bag is

31

. Number of blue cards in the bag=

123136

=×

b) A bag contains48 cards. The probability of getting a green cardfrom the bag is

41

. Number of greencards in the bag=c) A bag contains 27cards. The probability of getting a pink card fromthe bag is

31

. Number of pink cards in the bag=d) A bag contains60 cards. The probability of getting a red cardfrom the bag is

51

. Number of redcards in the bag=e) A bag contains 27 blue pens and some black pens.The probability of picking a blue pen is

43

.Total number of pens in the bag=

363427

=×

f) A bag contains 20red pens and somegreen pens. The probability of picking a red pen is

52

.Total number of penin the bag=g) A bag contains 18 pink pens and some blue pens. The probability of picking a blue pen is

32

. Total number of pen in the bag =h) A bag contains24 brown pens andsome yellow pens.The probability of picking a brown penis

73

. Totalnumber of pen inthe bag =

Probability II

2

i)

A class has 12 boys andsome girls. The probability of choosing a boy is

83

.Total number of students inthe class=

j)

A factory has 21male workers andsome femaleworkers. The probability of choosing a maleworker is

83

.Total number of workers in thefactory=k) There are 60 yellowfiles and some brownfiles in a drawer. The probability of choosinga yellow file is

53

.Total number of files inthe drawer =l) A bag contains 25red apples and somegreen apples. The probability of choosing a redapple is

85

.Total number of apples in the bag=

15.2Complement of an Event

•

The

complement

of an event A is denoted by

A

'.

A

' contains all outcomes of the sample spacethat are not in

A

.

•

P(A) + P(A') = 1

•

P(A') = 1 – P(A)

1. State the complement of each of the following events in words and set notation.EventComplement of event inwordsComplement of event in set notationa) A fair coin is tossed

A

= { head }

A'

= A head is notobtained

A'

= { tail } b) A fair dice is tossedB = An odd number is obtainedB’ =c) A letter is picked atrandom from the word‘DILIGENT’C = The letter I isobtainedC’ =2. Solve problems involving complement.a) The probability that a teamloses in a match is

52

.What is the probability thatthe teams win the match?

53521)(1)(

=−=−=

loss P Win P

b) The probabilitythat Rahim is latefor school is

81

.What is the probability that he ison time?c) A basket containssome red apples andsome green apples. The probability of picking ared apple is

72

.The probability of picking a green apple,

P(Green) =

d)A tray containsome soft-boiledeggs and some hard boiled eggs. The probability of choosing a soft- boiled egg is

52

.

P( Hard-boiled egg) =

Probability II

3

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