# Welcome back

## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

3Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

Chapter 13 I Probability ENHANCERatings: (0)|Views: 80|Likes: 2

Published by juriah binti ibrahim

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/77209677/Chapter-13-I-Probability-ENHANCE

11/08/2012

text

original

124 5

CHAPTER 13: PROBABILITY I

13.1Sample Space

Important concept:

•

An experiment is a process or action to observe its outcomes.

•

A sample space is the set of all possible outcomes from an experiment. It can be represented inthe form of set notation.

•

Example :

( )

}4,1),3,1(),2,1{(

=

S

Determine the sample space, S, of the following experiments by listing all the possible outcomes. Example 1Experiment: Tossing a fair coinSample space,S

= {Head, Tail}

Example 2Experiment: A fair six-sideddie is rolled.Sample space, S

={1,2,3,4,5,6}

Example 3Experiment: Drawing a ballfrom a bag containing three balls of the same size: white, black and green.Sample space, S = {white ball, black ball, green ball}Exercise1.Experiment: Tossing a fair coin.S= { }2.Experiment: Rolling a fair six-sided dice.S = { }3.Experiment: Drawing a ballfrom a bag containing three balls of the same size: white, redand yellow.S = { }4. Experiment: Tossing two fair coins.S =5. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from the fiveletter cards S =6. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from a bagcontaining 4 cards: black,green, red and blue. S =7. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a marble from thenumbered marbles below.S =8. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from the four cards below. S =9. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a pen from a boxcontaining three pens: one black, one blue and one red.S =

13.2Events

Important concept:

•

An event , A , is the set of outcomes that satisfy certain conditions.

ProbabilityI

1

LARGEMATR H

124 5

•

An event is a subset of the sample space, S.

( )

S A

⊂

•

An event A may or may not occur in an experiment..

•

An event is

possible

if its elements are the elements of thye sample space.

•

An

impossible

event is an

empty

set.List all the elements of the event A for each of the following experiments.Example 1Experiment: Tossing a fair coin.Event A = Getting a headA = { Head}Example 2Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled.Event A = Getting odd numbersA = { 1, 3, 5 }Example 3Experiment: Drawing a ball from a bag containing three balls of thesame size: black, red and yellow.Event A = Getting non-black ball.A = { Red ball, Yellow ball}Exercise1.Experiment: Tossing a fair coin.Event A = Getting a tailA = { }2.Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled.A = Getting even numbersA = { }3.Experiment: Randomly drawinga ball from a bag containing three balls of the same size: black, redand white.Event A = Getting non-white ball.A ={ }4. Experiment: Tossing twofair coins.Event A= Getting two facesof the ame number A= {5.Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled.A = Getting prime numbers.=6.Experiment: Randomly drawinga marble from the following: A= Getting a red or blue marble.=7. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a marble from thenumbered marbles below.Event A= Getting odd umber =8. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from the four cards below. A = Getting a consonant=9. Experiment: Randomly drawinga pen from a box containing three pens: one black, one blue and onered.A = Getting a yellow pen=

13.3Probability of an Event A, P(A)

Important concept:

•

( )

trialsof Number occurs Aevent timesof Number
A P

=

ProbabilityI

2

RedmarbleBlackmarbleBluemarbleGreenmarble

MATR H

•

If P(A) = 0, then A will not occur.

•

If P(A) = 1, then A occurs in every trial, that is, it will certainly occur.

•

The probability of an event A has a value between 0 and 1, that is,

0 ( ) 1

P A

≤ ≤

.Find the probability of the following events.ExamplesExerciseExample 1Experiment: Tossing a fair coin300 times.Event

A

= Getting ‘Head’ Number of times getting the‘Head’ = 150 timesP(A)

300150

=

21

=

1. Experiment: Tossing a fair coin 400 times.

A

= Getting ‘Head’ Number of times getting the‘Head’ = 200 timesP(

A

)=2. Experiment: Tossing a fair coin 500 times

A

= Getting ‘Tail’Number of times getting the‘Tail’ = 250 timesP(

A

)=Example 2Experiment: A fair six-sided diceis rolled 600 times.Event A = Getting the number ‘2’ Number of times getting thenumber ‘2’ = 100 timesP(

A

)

600100

=

61

=

3. Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled 900 times

A

= Getting number ‘6’ Number of times getting number ‘6’ = 150 timesP(

A

) =4. Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled 600 times

A

= Getting an even number Number of times getting an evennumber = 300 timesP(

A

)=Example 3Experiment: Randomly drawing acard from a box containing four cards as below :

12 34

Replace the card and drawagain.The experiment is done 200times.Event

A =

Getting the number ‘1’, Number of times getting number ‘1’ is 50 times.P(

A

) =

4120050

=

5. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from a boxcontaining four cards as below:

ABCD

Replace the card and draw again.The experiment is done 300 times.Event

A

= Getting number ‘D’ Number of times getting number ‘D’ is 75 times. P(

A

)=6. Experiment: Randomly drawinga card from a box containing four cards as below:Replace the card and draw again.The experiment is done 400 times.Event

A

= Getting an even number Number of times getting evennumbers is 300 times.P(

A

)= Important concept:

•

If the probability of an event and the number of trials are given, then

The expected number of times the event will occur = P(A)

×

Number of trials

ExamplesExerciseExample 1Tossing a fair coin 600 timesEvent,

A

= Getting the ‘Tail’1. Tossing a fair coin 700 times

A

= Getting the ‘Tail’2. Tossing a fair coin 500 times

A

= Getting the ‘Head’

ProbabilityI

3

234R 6

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

© Copyright 2015 Scribd Inc.

Language:

Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Password Reset Email Sent

Join with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

By joining, you agree to our

read free for one month

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Join with Facebook

or Join with EmailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

Already a member? Sign in.

By joining, you agree to our

to download

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Continue with Facebook

Sign inJoin with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

By joining, you agree to our

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd