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Chapter 13 I Probability ENHANCE

Chapter 13 I Probability ENHANCE

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Published by: juriah binti ibrahim on Jan 05, 2012
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124 5
CHAPTER 13: PROBABILITY I
13.1Sample Space
Important concept:
An experiment is a process or action to observe its outcomes.
A sample space is the set of all possible outcomes from an experiment. It can be represented inthe form of set notation.
Example :
( )
}4,1),3,1(),2,1{(
=
Determine the sample space, S, of the following experiments by listing all the possible outcomes. Example 1Experiment: Tossing a fair coinSample space,S
= {Head, Tail}
Example 2Experiment: A fair six-sideddie is rolled.Sample space, S
={1,2,3,4,5,6}
Example 3Experiment: Drawing a ballfrom a bag containing three balls of the same size: white, black and green.Sample space, S = {white ball, black ball, green ball}Exercise1.Experiment: Tossing a fair coin.S= { }2.Experiment: Rolling a fair six-sided dice.S = { }3.Experiment: Drawing a ballfrom a bag containing three balls of the same size: white, redand yellow.S = { }4. Experiment: Tossing two fair coins.S =5. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from the fiveletter cards S =6. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from a bagcontaining 4 cards: black,green, red and blue. S =7. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a marble from thenumbered marbles below.S =8. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from the four cards below. S =9. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a pen from a boxcontaining three pens: one black, one blue and one red.S =
13.2Events
Important concept:
An event , A , is the set of outcomes that satisfy certain conditions.
 ProbabilityI 
1
 
LARGEMATH
 
124 5
An event is a subset of the sample space, S.
( )
 A
An event A may or may not occur in an experiment..
An event is
possible
if its elements are the elements of thye sample space.
An
impossible
event is an
empty
set.List all the elements of the event A for each of the following experiments.Example 1Experiment: Tossing a fair coin.Event A = Getting a headA = { Head}Example 2Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled.Event A = Getting odd numbersA = { 1, 3, 5 }Example 3Experiment: Drawing a ball from a bag containing three balls of thesame size: black, red and yellow.Event A = Getting non-black ball.A = { Red ball, Yellow ball}Exercise1.Experiment: Tossing a fair coin.Event A = Getting a tailA = { }2.Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled.A = Getting even numbersA = { }3.Experiment: Randomly drawinga ball from a bag containing three balls of the same size: black, redand white.Event A = Getting non-white ball.A ={ }4. Experiment: Tossing twofair coins.Event A= Getting two facesof the ame number  A= {5.Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled.A = Getting prime numbers.=6.Experiment: Randomly drawinga marble from the following: A= Getting a red or blue marble.=7. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a marble from thenumbered marbles below.Event A= Getting odd umber =8. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from the four cards below. A = Getting a consonant=9. Experiment: Randomly drawinga pen from a box containing three pens: one black, one blue and onered.A = Getting a yellow pen=
13.3Probability of an Event A, P(A)
Important concept:
( )
trialsof   Number occurs Aevent timesof   Number   A P 
=
 ProbabilityI 
2
RedmarbleBlackmarbleBluemarbleGreenmarble
 
MATH
 
If P(A) = 0, then A will not occur.
If P(A) = 1, then A occurs in every trial, that is, it will certainly occur.
The probability of an event A has a value between 0 and 1, that is,
0 ( ) 1
 P A
.Find the probability of the following events.ExamplesExerciseExample 1Experiment: Tossing a fair coin300 times.Event
 A
= Getting ‘Head’ Number of times getting the‘Head’ = 150 timesP(A)
300150
=
 
21
=
1. Experiment: Tossing a fair coin 400 times.
 A
= Getting ‘Head’ Number of times getting the‘Head’ = 200 timesP(
 A
)=2. Experiment: Tossing a fair coin 500 times 
 A
= Getting ‘Tail’Number of times getting the‘Tail’ = 250 timesP(
 A
)=Example 2Experiment: A fair six-sided diceis rolled 600 times.Event A = Getting the number ‘2’ Number of times getting thenumber ‘2= 100 timesP(
 A
)
600100
=
 
61
=
3. Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled 900 times
 A
= Getting number ‘6’ Number of times getting number ‘6’ = 150 timesP(
 A
) =4. Experiment: A fair six-sideddice is rolled 600 times
 A
= Getting an even number  Number of times getting an evennumber = 300 timesP(
 A
)=Example 3Experiment: Randomly drawing acard from a box containing four cards as below :
12 34
Replace the card and drawagain.The experiment is done 200times.Event
 A =
Getting the number ‘1’, Number of times getting number ‘1’ is 50 times.P(
 A
) =
4120050
=
 5. Experiment: Randomlydrawing a card from a boxcontaining four cards as below:
 ABCD
Replace the card and draw again.The experiment is done 300 times.Event
 A
= Getting number ‘D’ Number of times getting number ‘D’ is 75 times. P(
 A
)=6. Experiment: Randomly drawinga card from a box containing four cards as below:Replace the card and draw again.The experiment is done 400 times.Event
 A
= Getting an even number  Number of times getting evennumbers is 300 times.P(
 A
)= Important concept:
If the probability of an event and the number of trials are given, then
The expected number of times the event will occur = P(A)
×
Number of trials
ExamplesExerciseExample 1Tossing a fair coin 600 timesEvent,
 A
= Getting the ‘Tail’1. Tossing a fair coin 700 times
 A
= Getting the ‘Tail’2. Tossing a fair coin 500 times
 A
= Getting the ‘Head’
 ProbabilityI 
3
 
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