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Iit Maths Vectors Exponentials and Logarithms

# Iit Maths Vectors Exponentials and Logarithms

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Higher
Mathematics
HSN23000
This document was produced specially for the HSN.uk.net website, and we require that any copies or derivative works attribute the work to Higher Still Notes.For more details about the copyright on these notes, please seehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/scotland/
hsn

.uk.net
UNIT 3
Mathematics 3

Higher Mathematics Unit 3 Mathematics 3
- ii - HSN23000
hsn
.uk.net
Contents
Vectors 128

1

Vectors and Scalars 128

2

Components 128

3

Magnitude 130

4

Equal Vectors 131

5

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors 132

6

Multiplication by a Scalar 134

7

Position Vectors 135

8

Basis Vectors 136

9

Collinearity 137

10

Dividing Lines in a Ratio 138

11

The Scalar Product 141

12

The Angle Between Vectors 144

13

Perpendicular Vectors 147

14

Properties of the Scalar Product 148

Further Calculus 149

1

Differentiating sin
x
and cos
x
149

2

Integrating sin
x
and cos
x
150

3

The Chain Rule 151

4

Special Cases of the Chain Rule 151

5

A Special Integral 154

6

Integrating sin(
ax
+
b
) and cos(
ax
+
b
) 157

Exponentials and Logarithms 160

1

Exponentials 160

2

Logarithms 162

3

Laws of Logarithms 162

4

Exponentials and Logarithms to the Base
e
165

5

Exponential and Logarithmic Equations 166

6

Graphing with Logarithmic Axes 169

7

Graph Transformations 173

Wave Functions 175

1

Expressing
p
cos
x
+
q
sin
x
in the form
k
cos(
x
a
) 175

2

Expressing
p
cos
x
+
q
sin
x
in other forms 176

3

Multiple Angles 177

4

Maximum and Minimum Values 178

5

Solving Equations 179

6

Sketching Graphs of
y
=
p
cos
x
+
q
sin
x
181

Higher Mathematics Unit 3 Vectors
Page 128HSN23000
hsn
.uk.net
OUTCOME 1
Vectors
1

Vectors and Scalars
A
scalar
is a quantity with magnitude (size) only – for example, an amountof money or a length of time.Sometimes size alone is not enough to describe a quantity – for example,directions to the nearest shop. For this we need to know a magnitude (i.e.how far),
and
a direction.Quantities with both magnitude and direction are called
vectors
. A vector is named either by using the points at the end of a directed linesegment (e.g.
AB

represents the vector starting at point A and ending atpoint B) or by using a bold letter (e.g.
). You will see bold letters used inprinted text, but in handwriting you should just underline the letter (e.g. ).Throughout these notes, we will show vectors bold and underlined (e.g.
u
).
2

Components
A vector may be represented by its
components
, which we write in acolumn. For example,
23
is a vector in two dimensions.In this case the first component is 2 and this tells us to move 2 units in the
x
-direction. The second component tells us to move 3 units in the
y
-direction. So if the vector starts at the origin, it will look like:O
y
x
2
3
B

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