ALLAIRE B. STALLSMITH 117
(of good crops),
(of the threshing floor),
(bringer of crops),
(of the big loaf),
(of the big porridge),
(rich in grain-heaps),
(of the grain-heap).
She is called
, of the earth, as the god-dess of the underground realm, from which crops spring up;the Underworld is also the abode of the dead, the kingdom of Hades. Demeter shares this double motif of death and fertilitywith her daughter Kore/Persephone,
(Queen of the Underworld).
Demeter was known in Arcadia under two enigmatic titles,
(angry). These names are associatedwith the Arcadian myth of Demeter’s rape by Poseidon whenboth had assumed equine form. This encounter resulted in thebirth of a daughter,
(Mistress, a title of Kore-Per-sephone), as well as a horse, the legendary Arion.
are seen as relics of a very old form of Demeter cult, partly because of their location in Arcadia, thatmost archaic region, and partly because of their associationwith
unimaginably ancient wooden statues. The incoher-ence of the myth has given rise to the notion that it derivesfrom an old but ill-remembered rite.
Demeter epithets are collected in K. F. H. Bruchmann,
Epitheta deorumquae apud poetas graecos leguntur (
Leipzig 1893) 75; L. R. Farnell,
Cults of theGreek States
Oxford 1906) 31–38, 311–325; M. P. Nilsson,
Griechische Festevon religiöser Bedeutung
(Leipzig 1906) 311–312; H. Usener,
Gotternamen: Versucheiner Lehre von der religiösen Begriffsbildung
(Bonn 1929) 242–247; M. H. Jameson, “The Hero Echetlaeus,”
82 (1951) 49–61, at 59 n.24; S. G.Cole, “Demeter in the Ancient Greek City and its Countryside,” in S.Alcock and R. Osborne (eds.),
Placing the Gods: Sanctuaries and Sacred Space in Ancient Greece
(Oxford 1994) 199–216, at 201–202.
. 29.6; F. Graf and S. Johnston,
Ritual Texts for the Afterlife
(London 2007) 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 38.
Demeter Erinys in Thelpousa: Paus. 8.25.3–7; Demeter Melaina inPhigalia: Paus. 8.5.8, 8.37.1–9, 8.42.1–13.
Placing the Gods
202; M. Jost, “Mystery Cults in Arcadia,” in M.B. Cosmopoulos (ed.),
Greek Mysteries. The Archaeology and Ritual of Ancient Greek Secret Cults (
London/New York 2003) 155–157.