2 / 10attributed to the mechanical strength and ithas been studied. The properties of low-calcium fly ash based geopolymer concretehave been discussed. Works on geopolymercomposites resulting in fire resistantmaterials has been studied. Studies haveshown that geopolymers have proven to bean excellent material for retrofitting worksand immobilizes toxic waste materialswithin its matrix. Studies revealed that theadditions of natural alkali pozzoloans(potassium or sodium aluminosilictaes)helped in substantially reducing the alkali-aggregate reaction and it has been discussed.The special properties of the geopolymericbinders are enhanced by the calcination of these materials and its various effects havebeen studied. Studies all around the worldhave been carried out considering this as afuture material and as a replacement of cement and still research are going on thesematerials to improve their properties.
Geopolymers are inorganic binders whosename was coined by Davidovitis in 1970’s.The prefix “
” was to symbolize therelationship of the binders to geologicalmaterials i.e. natural stone/minerals. Theyare formed by the alkali activation of readilyavailable natural or industrial byproducts of aluminosilicate materials like clays, ashes,natural pozzoloans (solidifies upon alkaliactivation). They are considered as eco-friendly materials as their production do notinvolve any decomposition of limestonewhich contributes to the CO
emission. Thealuminosilicate materials on activation by analkali solidify to a material which possessesa 3-D network of aluminate and silicateunits with charge balancing cations.Geopolymer binders are twocomponent systems that consists of thefollowing,
Reactive solid componentcontains SiO
Alkaline activation solutionWhen the above two componentscomes in contact with each other, hardeningresults due to the formation of analuminosilicate network ranging fromamorphous to crystalline. Geopolymersvaries from the OPC in many aspects suchas strength, durability etc.
Properties of geopolymers
Resistance to chemicals( in particularacids)
High density, low permeability
Rapid hardening with high ultimatestrengths