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Naval Architecture

Naval Architecture

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Published by pcnplus

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: pcnplus on Jan 06, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 ==== ====Architecture - Click Link Nowhttp://www.pcnplus.com/Stores/index.php?cat=media.architecture ==== ====Naval architecture is the design and engineering of marine vessels. These vessels include notonly government navy ships and submarines, but leisure boats such as yachts. Naval architectureis hardly a new discipline, since it technically began during ancient navigational times. Viking shipsand American steamboats are both historical examples of naval architecture. Today, navalarchitecture is more of an engineering science since architects rely on mathematics to design newnaval vessels. When constructing naval vessels, naval architects study the science of fluids. They studybuoyancy, displacement of water, waves, stability, and streamlining. As concerns the navalstructure, they study its weight distribution, resistance, and maneuverability. Their studies alsoinclude naval construction materials and interior components, along with dry-docking andlaunching operations. Yet, no matter how much work architects put into research, all navalstructures operate in unstable marine environments. Even the most structurally sound ships maybecome damaged or sink due to storms, tsunamis, and other environmental calamities. Even in antiquity, naval architects recognized that streamlining their ships made for a smoothercourse at sea. At some point in time, architects used the adjective "fair" to describe a vessel'sregular, fluid shape from its fore to aft. The opposite of a "fair" shape was a "bulky" or "ungainly"shape. Today, all naval vessels have the same basic shape, even extremely large aircraft carriers. When designing ships, naval architects first provide a safe foundation through the ship's hull. Thehull is the specially curved bottom of the ship. The hull's basic purpose is to supply buoyancy tothe ship so it safely floats on water. Its elongated shape, with the pointed ends of the bow andstern, protects the ship against sinking, since the shape distributes weight evenly throughout thevessel. The hull is by far the most essential component of naval architecture. When designing hulls, architects check for several requirements. First, they check that the hull candisplace water effectively, which means that the boat displaces an amount of water equal to theboat's weight. This gives the vessel greater efficiency and stability. Architects also check that thehull is as streamlined as possible so it causes minimal resistance to the water, which producesfewer ship-rocking waves. Checking for resistance is especially important for ships that operate athigh speeds, such as speedboats and military ships. Lastly, architects make sure that their shipsheed buoyancy and gravity principles, the most prominent of which is Archimedes' Principle ofBuoyancy. When designing the hull, architects ensure that the shape of the hull fits the ship's purpose. Forinstance, a round hull is efficient and stable, though it is not ideal for high speeds. In contrast, thedeep-V hull performs well at high speeds because it "slices" through even choppy waters. 
Besides the hull, naval architects design operating features atop the hull. These may include sails,steering mechanisms, propellers, engines, and the like. They may also install double-containmentfacilities to ensure the ship's cargo, such as oil, does not leak into the water. Some navalarchitects pay special attention to the ship's safety features, such as fire escapes, lifeboats, andstorm shelters. Moreover, they troubleshoot problems related to rust, material degradation, andenvironmental hazards. Architects who want to specialize in naval architecture have a wide selection of educationaloptions. First, they may attend government schools such as the US Coast Guard Academy or theUS Naval Academy, where they can gain premium understanding of military vessels. They mayalso choose from several universities that offer courses of study in naval architecture or marineengineering. These universities include the University of California-Berkeley and MassachusettsInstitute of Technology. It is recommended that students attend such schools because navalarchitecture demands extremely specialized knowledge. Other students can earn certificates inmarine engineering technology from technical colleges. Many naval-architecture students take internships throughout college to give them an edge atarchitectural entry-level jobs. These internships also help them narrow down what specialization ofnaval architecture suits them. They often work as interns at architecture firms or shipyards wherethey learn computer-aided design (CAD), which is essential to naval architecture. More and moreentry-level naval architects work at architecture design services firms that consult otherbusinesses. Learning CAD is absolutely necessary for entry-level employment because almost all navalarchitects use it day-to-day. In naval architecture, CAD takes into account Archimedes' Principleand other naval equations that go a long way to provide naval stability. Therefore, it is requiredthat naval architects gain significant CAD experience before applying to jobs after graduation. Themost widely used CAD software for naval architecture is AutoCAD. Since ships are still the main mode of import-export transportation, there are a fair number ofentry-level naval jobs in architecture. Some entry-level jobs are not full-time but contracting orconsulting jobs are more common for seasoned professionals. Most entry-level architects work atshipyards or architectural/engineering firms as architects' assistants. They earn average incomesof $50,000 per year. Naval architects who have worked for five years or more may advance to managerial or consulting jobs. Many of them also opt for self-employment if they have solid track records. Some navalarchitects may also choose to gain master's degrees in naval architecture or marine engineering.They may also join naval-architecture professional associations, like the Society of NavalArchitects & Marine Engineers, to further their education. Yet, substantial marine engineeringexperience tends to boost advancement prospects the most. These associate architects earnabout $77,000 after five years, then perhaps $90,000 after 10 or more years. A. Harrison Barnes is the founder and CEO of EmploymentScape, the parent company of morethan 90 job-search websites, employment services, recruiting firms and student loan companies.EmploymentScape (originally Juriscape) employs several hundred employees in 14 offices

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