Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword or section
Like this
0Activity
P. 1
UNDCP- Amphetamine-type Stimulants: A Global Review

UNDCP- Amphetamine-type Stimulants: A Global Review

Ratings: (0)|Views: 393|Likes:
Published by RoundSTIC

More info:

Published by: RoundSTIC on Jan 06, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/06/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Number 3
AMPHETAMINE-TYPESTIMULANTSA GLOBAL REVIEW
 Prepared by UNDCP at the request of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs
 
Contents
Introduction...........................................................................................................................1
Part One
Chapter 
THE LICIT SIDE OF THE EQUATION: THE AMPHETAMINE-TYPESTIMULANTS (ATS) AS MEDICINE..........................................................6I.The economic significance of ATS in the pharmaceutical industry....................6II.The relative significance of ATS among psychotropic substances...................10III.Global manufacture and trade of licit ATS.....................................................13IV.The therapeutic significance of ATS..............................................................25V.Conclusion....................................................................................................31
Part Two
THE ILLICIT SIDE OF THE EQUATION: MANUFACTURE,TRAFFICKING AND ABUSE OF AMPHETAMINE-TYPESTIMULANTS (ATS)..................................................................................35VI.Prescription drug misuse and diversions from licit trade.................................38VII.Illicit manufacture of ATS.............................................................................44VIII.Precursors of ATS........................................................................................50IX.Trafficking of ATS........................................................................................67X.Economic incentives for manufacture, trafficking and consumption of ATS...82XI.Extent of abuse of ATS.................................................................................99XII.Impact of consumption of ATS...................................................................119XIII.Conclusion..................................................................................................125References.........................................................................................................................129
 
1
Introduction
In the ever-widening discourse on substance abuse, it is frequently asserted that the keyproblem of the future will be associated with what are commonly known as synthetic drugs. Thepresent paper is an attempt to assess the validity of this proposition. The subject is too vast andintricate to cover in a single review, but guidance for achieving a manageable focus can be foundin two areas: the level of international consensus in defining a critical area and the nature of thesubstances themselves. With regard to defining the key area, the Economic and Social Council,reflecting the common concerns of many States Members of the United Nations, adoptedresolution 1995/20 calling for a thorough study of psychotropic substances, particularly stimulantsand their precursors. Even the category
>
stimulants
=
, however, is a very wide one, covering alarge range of substances whose principal pharmacological effect is to stimulate the centralnervous system of the body. There is some pragmatic justification, detailed in Table 1, innarrowing this category down to a group of substances that are similar, not only in theirpharmacological effect but also in chemical structure: the amphetamine-type stimulants(abbreviated, throughout this review, as ATS).Historically, the demand for ATS as medicines was satisfied by the licit pharmaceuticalindustry. Amphetamine, for instance, was synthesized in 1887 but only marketed (as
 Benzedrine
7
, in the form of an inhaler to relieve nasal congestion) in 1932. Probably as a resultof its instrumental use during the Second World War, the post-war generation witnessed aproliferation of ATS being prescribed and abused, followed by isolated national control measures.By the 1970s, however, the therapeutic usefulness of these substances was recognized to belimited, but actual abuse had grown. Control measures, national and international, consequentlybecame more stringent. Decline in licit pharmaceutical manufacture followed. Demand, however,did not a show commensurate decline, and clandestine manufacture gradually became the majorsource of supply for some of these substances. Two factors supported this increase in illicitmanufacture: the number and simplicity of synthetic routes to manufacture the end product andthe easy access to a variety of potential starting materials.While it is clear that there is sufficient basis to justify an international review, the utilityof such a review will depend on resolving a number of fundamental questions at the outset. Whatare the magnitudes, in absolute and relative terms, of the problem as compared to the principalplant-based drugs of abuse? Is the provenance of the ATS problem limited to certain countries,or can it be deemed a global one? With what comparable phenomenon do we have a basis forcomparison? International drug control has traditionally been dominated by the three plant-baseddrugs: opium, cocaine and cannabis. This factor sometimes over shadows other issues and mayeven prevent, or at any rate delay, the recognition of a new problem when it appears. Thephenomenon of synthetic drugs, and of ATS within the category, could be a test case here. Whileit may be true that the illicit market for synthetic drugs merely complements the much larger illicitmarket for the plant-based drugs, it is clear that the driving forces, dynamism and potential fordiversification of the former have not been sufficiently investigated. A good deal of work hasbeen done in the area, but it has usually covered individual segments of the problem: the licitpharmaceutical industry, illicit markets for particular synthetic drugs, the precursors needed toproduce the substances, the epidemiology of particular substances. These studies and reviews willbe referenced in relevant chapters of the paper. What should be noted here is that the individual

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->