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riassunto: dalla rivoluzione russa al comunismo di guerra

riassunto: dalla rivoluzione russa al comunismo di guerra

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Published by Gianfranco Marini
riassunto di storia: dalla rivoluzione russa al comunismo di guerra, realizzato da Mattia Lai, Liceo Scientifico "G. Brotzu", Quartu Sant'Elena, A.S. 2010/11
riassunto di storia: dalla rivoluzione russa al comunismo di guerra, realizzato da Mattia Lai, Liceo Scientifico "G. Brotzu", Quartu Sant'Elena, A.S. 2010/11

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Published by: Gianfranco Marini on Jan 06, 2012
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02/02/2013

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 C,kivhzm wnzkqtn
Cn Zxqqkn wnzkqtn ezn nzzhtznthwwn h imdhz`kwwnwkm`h.
@hc ehjjznkm dhc ,>< x`m qakmvhzm# qhlxktm dn x`,k`qxzzhwkm`h dhcc,hqhzaktm# amqtzk`qh cm wnz nd njdkanzh ">8 inzwm+. Uh``h kqtktxktm x` lmuhz`m amqtktxh`thvzhqkhdxtm dn
Ohzh`qokg
"ukak`m ncch kdhh qmaknckqth zkumcxwkm`nzkh+. Ch anxqh dhc azmccm dhc zhl`m dhlck wnz# abh qmcm vmabk n``k vzkin "dnc >25>+ nuhun dntmk`kwkm nd x` vzmahqqm dk imdhz`kwwnwkm`h dhccn Zxqqkn "njmckwkm`h qhzuktû dhccn lchjn# k`dxqtzknckwwnwkm`h haa.+ qm`m vzk`akvncih`th7>.
^xhqtkm`h am`tndk`n 
7 cn ckjhznwkm`h dhccn qhzuktû dhthzik`ú x` k`azhih`tm dhccn vzmdxwkm`h hd hqvmztnwkm`h nlzkamcn `hc vnhqh# in am`tk`xnun nqxqqkqthzh kc
vzmjchin dhcch thzzh
? ~xhqth hzn`m k`enttk qxddkukqh k` in`khzn hqtzhinih`th dkqhlxnch. ^xnqk cn ihtæ dhk anivk amctkunjkck hzn`m k`vmqqhqqm dk lzn`dk vzmvzkhtnzk thzzkhzk h dhk
Oxcnok 
"am`tndk`k nlkntk+? kc zhqtm hzn dkqtzkjxktm tzn ikckm`k dk am`tndk`k vmuhzkqqkik# abh `m` zkxqakun`m amqãnd na~xkqtnzh ihzak abh `m` emqqhzm dk vzkin `hahqqktæ..:.
^xhqtkm`h mvhznkn 
7 `m`mqtn`th c,k`dxqtzknckwwnwkm`h k`kwkntn `hcc,xctkim dhah``km dhcc,266# cn acnqqh mvhznkn hzn imctm vmam `xihzmqn? ~xhqtm vhzabëin`anun k` lzn` vnzth x`n ih`tncktæ kivzh`dktmzknch# ch k`dxqtzkh `nqahun`m qmcm lznwkh n k`uhqtkih`tk qtntnck m hqthzk. K` ~xhqtn am`dkwkm`h kcnumzntmzk hzn`m jh` vmam txthcntk h cnumznun`m k` am`dkwkm`k vhqqkih# am` qncnzk jnqqkqqkik h mznzk vzmcx`lntk.
K vnztktk d,mvvmqkwkm`h h lck mjkhttkuk dhccn cmttn vmcktkan.
Cn Zxqqkn# vmcktkanih`th# nlck k`kwk dhc ,;66 hzn nxtmazntkan h qk zkth`hun abh kc vmthzh dhccm wnz dhzkunqqh dn Dkm# ~xk`dk `m` hqkqthun vnzcnih`tm h c,nttkuktævmcktkan hzn qtzhttnih`th am`tzmccntn? `m`mqtn`th txttm qk mzln`kwwnzm`m dkuhzqk vnztktk d,mvvmqkwkm`h7
Vnztktm amqtktxwkm`nch)dhimazntkam
7 d,kqvkznwkm`h
jmzlbhqh ckjhznch
# nuhun amih vzk`akvnch mjkhttkum c,kqtktxwkm`h dk x` vnzcnih`tm hchttkum h emzth.
Vnztktm qmaknc)zkumcxwkm`nzkm
7 `nqah `hc >;6> kqvkzntm nc
vmvxckqim zxqqm
? kc qxm mjkhttkum â cn zhdkqtzkjxwkm`h dhccn thzzn h cn uncmzkwwnwkm`h dhcchtzndkwkm`k amix`ktnzkh dhc im`dm am`tndk`m.
Vnztktm mvhznkm qmakncdhimazntkam
7 dk mzkh`tnih`tm
inzrkqtn 
h k` ck`hn am` ch kdhh dhccn Qham`dn K`thz`nwkm`nch# `nqah `hc >2;2? zkth`hun abh qmcmcm qukcxvvm dk x`n emzth acnqqh mvhznkn nuzhjjh vhzihqqm cn zkumcxwkm`h? k`enttk ch zkuh`dkanwkm`k dhk am`tndk`k hzn`m zkth`xth dk tkvm am`qhzuntmzh. Dnc
>;61
k`kwkú n azhnzqk x`n vzmem`dn qvnaantxzn tzn k imdhzntk
Ih`qahukabk 
h k zkumcxwkm`nzk
Jmcqahukabk 
? ch vzk`akvnck vmchikabh exzm`m7
 
Am`ahwkm`h dhc vnztktm
7
Ih`qahukabk
7 dmuhun mzln`kwwnzqk amih x`,mzln`kwwnwkm`h dk inqqn nvhztn nd ml`k qkivntkwwn`th.
Jmcqahukabk
7 dmuhun hqqhzh emzth h niik`kqtzntm dn vmabk zkqtzhttk –lzxvvk’ zkumcxwkm`nzk# am` x` vmthzh emzthih`th ah`tznckwwntm.
 
Uncxtnwkm`k qxcch vmqqkjkcktæ h imdncktæ dk zkxqaktn dhccn zkumcxwkm`h
7
Ih`qahukabk
7 zkth`hun`m ch vmqqkjkcktæ abh qamvvknqqh h zkxqakqqh imctm zhimth# dntn cn dhjmchwwn dhccn acnqqh mvhznkn? vx`tnun`m dx`~xhqx x`n zkumcxwkm`h dhimazntkam)jmzlbhqh
 
# vhz enz azmccnzh kc zhlkih wnzkqtn.
Jmcqahukabk
7 lxkdntk dncch kdhh dk Ch`k`# zkth`hun`m abh cn jmzlbhqkn `m` emqqh k` lzndm dk vmztnzh nun`tk ncax`n zkumctn
 
? dmuhun ~xk`dkhqqhzh kc vzmchtnzkntm n enz qamvvknzh x`n zkumcxwkm`h dhimazntkam)jmzlbhqh amih vzhcxdkm dk ~xhccn qmaknckqtn
 
? k`mctzh Ch`k` hzn am`uk`tmabh ch am`dkwkm`k emqqhzm mzink vzmvkwkh vhz enz ~xhqtm.
Cn zkumcxwkm`h dhc >;68.
Cn vzkin hqvcmqkm`h zkumcxwkm`nzkn hjjh cxmlm n anxqn dhccn lxhzzn zxqqm)lknvvm`hqh# abh ukdh cn inzk`n dhccm wnz k` lznuh dkeekamctæ. Ex amqã abh `hc lh``nkm>;68# am`tzm kc lmuhz`m# qamvvkú x`m qakmvhzm qhlxktm dn x`n lzn`dh h vnakekan in`kehqtnwkm`h vmvmcnzh k` enumzh dhc iklckmznih`tm dhcch am`dkwkm`k dhkcnumzntmzk h dhcc,kqtktxwkm`h dk x`,nqqhijchn amqtktxh`th. Cn zkqvmqtn n ~xhqtn in`kehqtnwkm`h ex jzxtnch7 k qmcdntk qvnznzm`m qxccn emccn. Kc lkmz`m ukh`h zkamzdntmamih –
Dmih`kan dk qn`lxh
’ h ehah dkqqmcuhzh imih`tn`hnih`th k am`tznqtk ezn ch mvvmqkwkm`k abh
qk x`kzm`m am`tzm kc zhlkih
.@hcc,mttmjzh dhc ,68# n anxqn dhlck qakmvhzk# cm wnz kqtktxã x` vnzcnih`tm7 cn
Dxin
. K ckjhznck n ~xhqtm vx`tm# zkth`h`dmqk qmddkqenttk# njjn`dm`nzm`m ch nctzhmvvmqkwkm`k "abh k`uhah am`tk`xnun`m n abkhdhzh zkemzih vkû qmqtn`wknck
 
+. Ncch `xmuh zkabkhqth cm Wnz zkqvmqh qakmlckh`dm cn Dxin# abh k` qhlxktm ex zknvhztn inam` x` qxeeznlkm imctm zkqtzhttm# k` imdm abh emqqh amqtktxktn dn emzwh x`kanih`th am`qhzuntzkak.Cn zkumcxwkm`h dhc ,68 am`uk`qh k jmcqahukabk zklxnzdm cn uhzkdkaktæ dhcch cmzm kdhh# h akmâ7
dhcc,
k`anvnaktæ dhccn jmzlbhqkn 
n vmztnzh nun`tk x` vzmahqqm zkumcxwkm`nzkm# dntm abh ~xhqtn hzn tzmvvm qvnuh`tntn dnccn vmqqkjkcktæ abh cm qam`tzmqmaknch qk tznqemzinqqh k` x`n zkumcxwkm`h vzmchtnzkn# vzhehzh`dm ~xk`dk ncchnzqk am` cn uhaabkn nzkqtmaznwkn abh umchun njjntthzh.
dhc enttm abh cn
acnqqh mvhznkn hzn intxzn 
vhz vmztnzh nun`tk cn zkumcxwkm`h ncchn`dmqk amih k am`tndk`k? ~xhqtm ex dkimqtzntm dncc,kqtktxwkm`h dhcQmukht dhk cnumzntmzk# qhvvxzh nuhqqh vmk nuxtm uktn jzhukqqkin.
Ch zkemzih dk Qtmc{vk` h k znvvmztk qmaknck `hcch anivnl`h.
Kc `xmum lmuhz`m ahzaú amqã dk mtth`hzh kc qxaahqqm vhz ihwwm dk x`n vmcktkan zkemzintzkah zklxnzdm cn ~xhqtkm`h dhcch thzzh. Kc vzkim ik`kqtzm Qtmc{vk` hin`ú amqãdhk vzmuuhdkih`tk nc ek`h dk7
Azhnzh x` ahtm ihdkm nlznzkm
abh dmuhun zneemzwnzh cn vzmdxwkm`h h dnzh inllkmzh qtnjkcktæ qmaknch nccm qtntm. Ek`m n ~xhc imih`tm k`enttk ch thzzhhzn`m k` in`m m nk lzn`dk vzmvzkhtnzk thzzkhzk# m nk
Ikz 
"nqqhijchh dhk ukccnllk abh ml`k n``m dkqtzkjxkun`m ch thzzh tzn k am`tndk`k h ck vnlnun`m vhz kccmzm cnumzm+. Qtmc{vk` dkhdh# dx`~xh# k` vmqqhqqm nk am`tndk`k ~xhk thzzh`k abh vzkin uh`kun`m neekdntk cmzm n``xncih`th dnk
Ikz 
.Cn zkemzin vhzú hjjh n`abh dkuhzqk zkqumctk `hlntkuk7
K am`tndk`k# vzkuk dhk ihwwk vhz qmqth`hzh k thzzh`k na~xkqktk# exzm`m
amqtzhttk n zkuh`dhzcn 
# `m` vkû nk
Ikz 
# in nk am`tndk`k zkaabk? ~xhqtk# abh nuhun`mvzhahdh`thih`th ahdxtm n`abh vnzth dhk cmzm thzzh`k uh`h`dm zkijmzqntk dnccm qtntm# ck zkamivznzm`m amqã n vzhwwm vkû jnqqm.K am`tndk`k nlkntk "
Oxcnok 
+ exzm`m amqã k uhzk jh`hekaknzk dhccn zkemzin# dntm abh zkxqakzm`m nd nzzkaabkzqk h`mzihih`th. Amqã k am`tndk`k mzink qh`wn thzzndkuh`tnzm`m Jznaakn`tk m n`dnzm`m n ahzanzh cnumzm amih mvhznk `hcch akttæ? c,hqklxm `xihzm dhcch k`dxqtzkh vhzú `m` vmthun qmddkqenzh c,h`mzih zkabkhqtn dkcnumzm# vhztn`tm nxih`tú tn`tkqqkim cn th`qkm`h qmaknch. C,mjkhttkum jmcqahukam dhcc,ncchn`wn tzn am`tndk`k h mvhznk hzn qhivzh vkû ukak`m.
 Cn andxtn dhlck wnz 
Ch zkvhzaxqqkm`k dhccn Lzn`dh lxhzzn.
Cn lzn`dh lxhzzn ik`ú vzmem`dnih`th cn qtnjkcktæ dhc zhlkih wnzkqtn# tn`tkqqkik nqvhttk vmztnzm`m cn vmvmcnwkm`h n vzh`dhzh vmqkwkm`k mqtkck nccn lxhzzn7
Ch `nwkm`ncktæ ik`mzk 
 
# k` vnztkamcnzh xaznk`k h vmcnaabk# hzn`m am`tzm? k cmzm qtntk# k`enttk# exzm`m k vzkik n uh`kzh k`unqk.
K qmaknckqtk qk mvvm`hun`m vhz x`n ~xhqtkm`h kdhmcmlkan.
K qmcdntk `m` hzn`m am`uk`tk dhccn `hahqqktæ dhc am`eckttm? cn lzn` vnzth dk cmzm hzn`m qhivckak am`tndk`k.
Qk` dnc vzkim n``m uk exzm`m lznukqqkih vhzdkth# ~xnqk dxh ikckm`k dk xmik`k.
K amin`dk ikcktnzk hzn`m k`anvnak "k` lzn` vnzth+ h ehahzm qvhqqm hzzmzk lzmqqmcn`k abh in`dnun`m k qmcdntk nccn imzth.
@m` a,hzn`m ihwwk dk tznqvmztm ndhlxntk 
 
# amqã lck nvvzmuuklkm`nih`tk nckih`tnzk h jhcckak qanzqhllknun`m qxc ezm`th h `hcch akttæ? n anxqn dhccnin`an`wn dk jh`k dk am`qxim# nxih`tú h`mzihih`th kc cmzm vzhwwm qxc ihzantm. Txttm akú vmztú n x`n qhzkh dk lzn`dk qakmvhzk n vnztkzh dnc >;>8.Uk ex vmk x` th`tntkum dk qumctn zhnwkm`nzkn nvvmllkntn dncch emzwh ukak`h nccn amzth# amqã uh``h qakmctn cn
Dxin
h uh``hzm zhumanth ch zkemzih amqtktxwkm`nck. Txttm~xhqtm# k`qkhih ncc,k`anvnaktæ dk znwkm`nckwwnzh cn vzmdxwkm`h "n`abh n anxqn dhccn jxzmaznwkn amzzmttn+# dhthzik`ú x`n qhivzh inllkmzh nuuhzqkm`h nc zhlkih.
Cn zkumcxwkm`h dk ehjjznkm7 c,njdkanwkm`h dhccm wnz.
Cn qktxnwkm`h vzhakvktú nlck k`kwk dhc ,><? x`n vzmthqtn dk mvhznk h qmcdntk qamvvkntn k` inzwm n Vkhtzmlzndm# nvvmllkntn dncch tzxvvh abh qk zkekxtnzm`m dk qvnznzhqxccn emccn# ehah njdkanzh cm Wnz @kamcn KK. ^xhqtn zkumctn qk dkeexqh k` txttn cn Zxqqkn h qk tznqemziú k` x`n zkumcxwkm`h vmcktkan "–
Zkumcxwkm`h dk Ehjjznkm
’+ am` cnazhnwkm`h dk dxh mzln`kqik k`dkvh`dh`tk dk lmuhz`m7
Lmuhz`m vzmuukqmzkm
7 amqtktxwkm`nckqtn# am`tzmccntm dnk ckjhznc)dhimazntkak h `hc ~xnch qvkaanun cn eklxzn dhc qmaknczkumcxwkm`nzkm
Ohzh`qokg
.
Qmukht dk Vkhtzmlzndm
7 abh hzn qtntm zkamqtktxktm dmvm abh hzn qtntm qakmctm `hc ,68? hzn am`tzmccntm dncch unzkh amzzh`tk qmaknckqth "qmaknczkumcxwkm`nzk#ih`qahukabk# jmcqahukabk+.Kc lmuhz`m vzmuukqmzkm qk vzhqh`tú qxjktm nlck ncchntk dhccn Lzn`dh lxhzzn amih c,x`kam chlkttkim dhth`tmzh dhc vmthzh. Kc lmuhz`m vzmuukqmzkm umchun7>.Vzmqhlxkzh cn lxhzzn nc ekn`am dhcc,K`thqn.:.Emzinzh x`,nqqhijchn amqtktxh`th hchttn am` hchwkm`k n qxeeznlkm x`kuhzqnch.Kc Qmukht k`uhah7>.Vzhihun vhz cn vnah kiihdkntn.:.
Zkdkqtzkjxkzh ch thzzh
.K`tn`tm qtnun `nqah`dm x`n zhth dk Qmukht vhz txttn cn Zxqqkn? kc lmuhz`m ckjhznch hzn qhivzh vkû k` dkeekamctæ.
Kc zkh`tzm dk Ch`k` dncc,hqkckm h ch –Thqk d,nvzkch’.
Ncc,k`thz`m dhk Qmukht `m` in`anun`m amix`~xh lzmqqk am`tznqtk# nllznuntk dnc enttm abh# ~xn`dm hzn qamvvkntn cn zkumcxwkm`h# imctk dkzklh`tk jmcqahukabk hzn`m k`hqkckm ncc,hqthzm. C,hlhim`kn vmcktkan# ~xk`dk# k` ~xhqtm vhzkmdm hzn k` in`m nk Ih`qahukabk# abh hzn`m zkam`mqakxtk amih x`n mvvmqkwkm`h chlnch dn vnzth dhclmuhz`m. In qx amqn dkuhzlhun`m ch vmqkwkm`k k`thz`h nk Qmukht=

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