Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing the basic principle of electrical resistivity.
Use of 2D Electrical Resistivity for Assessing Sinkholes in Viroqua, Wisconsin
John Ong, University of Nebraska-LincolnCaroline Jaraula-Mateo, University of Illinois at Chicago Dan Ferdinand Fernandez, CGG Veritas Leny Galvez, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Kelvin Rodolfo, University of Illinois at Chicago
An electrical resistivity (ER) survey of sections of Viroqua, WI was commissioned by the projectentitled “Groundwater Vulnerability in the Kickapoo River Watershed” funded by the KickapooValley (Nuzum) Reforestation Fund. Observation of outcrops and measurement the electricalconductivity of surface and spring water were conducted on 2 July 2009 (Figures 1 and 2). SixER profiles were surveyed from 3-5 July 2009.
The ER method, conceived almost a century ago, is now one of the most widely usedhydrogeophysical techniques (Binley and Keman, 2005). In the mid-1990s, two-dimensionalresistivity imaging techniques were developed by combining conventional one-dimensionalvertical electrical soundings and profiling procedures into a single process (Janik and Krummel,2006). 2D resistivity imaging has been applied in various ways, including the delineation of fresh and salt ground-water (Nassir et al., 2000; Goldman and Kafri, 2006), monitoring of groundwater contamination plumes (Cassiani et al, 2006; Webb et al., 2008), discriminatingwater-bearing fractured rock from its solid host rock (Seaton and Burbey, 2002), differentiatingsandy aquifers from clays (Baines et al., 2002), and locating sinkholes in karst terrain (Al-Zoubiet al., 2007).The resisitivity method injects electrical current into the ground through two electrodes andmeasures the potential difference between two additional electrodes to determine the apparentground resistivities (Figure 3). For a homogenous earth, the apparent resistivity,
, is calculatedas , where
is the geometric factor (in meters),
is the measured voltage, and
isthe injected current. The calculation of
depends on the electrode configuration used for thesurvey (Telford et al., 1977). Wenner array was employed, with
K = 2