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De thi HSG Toan 8

De thi HSG Toan 8

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Published by: hq5k3dhtm on Jan 07, 2012
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02/01/2014

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PHÒNG GD-ĐT TRỰC NINHTRƯỜNG THCS TRỰC BÌNH
ĐỀ THI HỌC SINH GIỎI CẤP HUYỆNMÔN
 TO¸N 8
 NĂM HỌC 2010-2011
Thời gian làm bài 120 phút(Không kể thời gian giao đề)
C©u 1(4.0 ®iÓm) :
 
Cho biÓu thøc A
=
2 3
3 3 41 1 1
 x x x x x x x
+++ + +
a) Rót gän biÓu thøc Ab) Chøng minh r»ng gi¸ trÞ cña A lu«n d¬ng víi mäi x
- 1C©u 2(4.0 ®iÓm): Gi¶i ph¬ng tr×nh:
 a)
2
3 2 1 0
 x x x
+ + − =
b)
( )
2 2 222 22 2
1 1 1 18 4 4 4
 x x x x x x x x x
    + + + + + = +        
C©u 3(3.0 ®iÓm) :
 
Cho xy
0 vµ x + y = 1.Chøng minh r»ng:
( )
3 3 2 2
2 21 1 3
 xy x y y x x y
+ +
= 0C©u 4(3.0 ®iÓm): Chøng minh r»ng: Víi mäi x
Q th× gi¸ trÞ cña®a thøc :M =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 4 6 8 16
 x x x x
+ + + + +
lµ b×nh ph¬ng cña mét sè h÷utØ.C©u 5 (6.0 ®iÓm) : Cho tam gi¸c ABC vu«ng t¹i A (AC > AB), ®êngcao AH (H
BC). Trªn tia HC lÊy ®iÓm D sao cho HD = HA. §êng vu«nggãc víi BC t¹i D c¾t AC t¹i E.
1.
Chøng minh r»ng hai tam gi¸c BEC vµ ADC ®ång d¹ng. TÝnh ®édµi ®o¹n BE theo
m AB
=
.2.i M lµ trung ®iÓm cña ®o¹n BE. Chøng minh r»ng hai tamgi¸c BHM vµ BEC ®ång d¹ng. TÝnh sè ®o cña gãc AHM
3.
 Tia AM c¾t BC t¹i G. Chøng minh:
GB HD BC AH H
=+
.----------------------------------------------HÕt-------------------------------------------------
 
Híng dÉn chÊm to¸n 8
uNéi dung§iÓm1a
- Rót gän:
A =
2 3
3 3 41 1 1
 x x x x x x x
+++ + +
=
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
22
1 1 3 3 41 1
 x x x x x x x x x
+ − + + ++ +
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
23 2 222 2
1 12 2 1 111 1 1 1
 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
+ + ++ + + + += =++ + + +
1®iÓm1®iÓm
b
Víi mäi x
- 1 th× A =
22
11
 x x x x
+ ++
=
22
1 32 41 32 4
 x x
 + +   +  
 
2 2
1 3 1 30; 0, 1 0, 12 4 2 4
 x x x A x
 + + > + > ∀ ⇒ > ∀   
1®iÓm1®iÓm
2a
* Víi x
1 (*)
x - 1
0
 
1 1
 x x
=
 
ta cã ph¬ng tr×nhx
2
-3x + 2 + x-1 = 0
( )
22
2 1 0 1 0 1
 x x x x
+ = = =
( Tho¶ m·n ®iÒu kiÖn *)* Víi x< 1 (**)
x - 1
0
 
1 1
 x x
=
 
ta cã ph¬ng tr×nhx
2
-3x + 2 + 1 - x = 0
( ) ( )
2
4 3 0 1 3 0
 x x x x
+ = ⇔ − =
 
+ x - 1 = 0
1
 x
=
( Kh«ng tháa m·n ®iÒu kiÖn **)+ x - 3 = 0
 
3
 x
=
 
( Kh«ng tho¶ m·n ®iÒu kiÖn **)VËy nghiÖm cña ph¬ng tr×nh lµ : x = 11®iÓm1®iÓm
b
* §iÒu kiÖn x
0 (1)0.5®i
 
* pt
( )
2 222 22 2
1 1 1 18 4 4
 x x x x x x x x x
 + + + + + = +  
 
( )
222 2 22 2 2
1 1 1 18 2 4 4
 x x x x x x x x x
  + + + + + + = +    
 
( ) ( )
2
16 4 8 0 0
 x x x x
= + + = =
hoÆc x = -8So s¸nh víi ®iÒu kiÖn (1) , suy ra nghiÖm cña ph¬ng tr×nhlµ x = - 8Óm1®iÓm0.5®iÓm
3
 Ta cã
( )
( ) ( )
3 2 2
1 1 1 1
 y y y y x y y
= + + = + +
v× xy
0
x, y
0
x, y
0
y-1
0 vµ x-1
0
 
( )
( ) ( )
3 23 2 23 2
11 111 1 1 11 1
 x y y y y x x x x y x x x x x
=+ += − + = + =+ +
3 3 2 2
1 11 1 1 1
 x y y x y y x x
+ = ++ + + +
 
( ) ( )
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
22 222 22 22 2 3 3 2 2
2 21 11 12 12 24 203 1 1 3
 x y xy x y x x y y x x y yx y x y xy xy x y xy x y xy xy x y x y y x x y
  + + + ++ + + + + = =    + + + ++ + + + + + + +  = ⇒ + =+ +
 1®iÓm1®iÓm1®iÓm
4
 Ta cã: M =
( ) ( )
2 2
10 16 10 24 16
 x x x x
+ + + + +
§Æt a = x
2
+ 10x + 16 suy ra M = a( a+8) + 16 = a
2
+ 8a +16 = ( a+ 4)
2
M = ( x
2
+ 10x + 20 )
2
( ®pcm)1®iÓm1®iÓm1®iÓm
5a
+ Hai tam gi¸c ADC vµ BEC cã:Gãc C chung.

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