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Introduction to WiMAX

Introduction to WiMAX

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Published by Puneet Kaushik
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Published by: Puneet Kaushik on Jan 07, 2012
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An Introduction To W orld-wide I nter-operability forM icrowave Acc ess (Wi –MAX)
1.0Scope:
The Wi-MAX certification mark is given to product that pass conformity andinteroperability test for the IEEE 802-16 standard which caters for the Air interfacestandard for point-to-multipoint broad-band Internet access over a wirelessconnection.
2.0General details of Wi-MAX
:Wi-MAX is an acronym that stands fo
World-wide
 
Interoperability forMicrowave Access.
It is an ideal method for ISP to deliver high speed broadband tolocations where wired connections would be difficult or costly. Wi-MAX delivers a point-to-multipoint architecture. It doesn't require a direct line of sight between thesource and endpoint and it has a service range of 50 Kms. It provides a shared datarate of up to 70 Mbps, which is enough to service up to a thousand homes with high-speed access.The main advantages of Wi-MAX are:
High speed of broadband service upto 70 Mbps.
Wireless rather than wired access, so that it would be a lot less expensive thancable or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and much easier to extend to suburbanand rural areas.
Broad coverage like the cell phone network instead of small Wi-Fi hotspots ,50 Kms.There are following, two corresponding Wi-MAX standards:
1.IEEE 802.16-2004
is for fixed point-to-point and point-to-multipointwireless access. It is akin to a faster, airborne version of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable-modem services, It is also called first Non Line of Sight(NLOS), Broad-Band Wireless access (BWA) standard.
2.IEEE 802.16e
is for mobile wireless access from laptops and hand held. Itis analogous to a faster version of third-generation (3G) telecommunicationstechnology. (Wi-Max proponent Intel Corp. has promised 802.16e-enabledlaptops by early 2007)True roaming cell-like wireless broadband , is
IEEE standard 802.20
, which iscompatible with Wi-MAX.
3.0Working of Wi-MAX
:Wi-MAX operates similar to Wi-Fi but at higher speeds, over greater distances andfor a greater number of users. It consists of following two parts: a)A Wi-MAX tower, similar in concept to a cell-phone tower, and which can provide coverage to a very large area as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000square km). b)A Wi-MAX receiver, and antenna could be like a PCMCIA (PersonalComputer Memory Card International Association) card, or they could be built into a laptop similar to Wi-Fi access.
 
WIFi – WiMAX : Introduction to WiMAXIt can provide two forms of wireless service:a)The
non-line-of-sight
, Wi-Fi sort of service, where a small antenna onyour computer connects to the tower. In this mode, Wi-MAX uses a lower frequency range - 2 GHz to 11 GHz (similar to Wi-Fi). As lower-wavelength transmissions are not as easily disrupted by physicalobstructions they provided non line of sight coverage. b)The
line-of-sight service
, where a fixed dish antenna points straight at theWi-MAX tower from a rooftop or pole. The line-of-sight connection isstronger and more stable, so it is able to send a lot of data with fewer errors. Line-of-sight transmissions use higher frequencies, with rangesreaching a possible 66 GHz. At higher frequencies, there is lessinterference and lots more bandwidth as shown in
Figure 1.Figure -1
Wi-MAX operates on the same general principles as Wi-Fi. A typical Wi-MAXnetwork sends data from one computer to another via radio signals. A computer (either a desktop or a laptop) equipped with Wi-MAX would receive data from theWi-MAX transmitting station, using encrypted data keys to prevent unauthorizedusers from stealing access. The fastest Wi-Fi connection can transmit up to 54megabits per second under optimal conditions. Wi-MAX should be able to handle upto 70 megabits per second. Even once those 70 megabits is split up between severaldozen businesses or a few hundred home users, it will provide at least the equivalentof cable-modem transfer rates to each user.The Wi-MAX protocol is a way of networking computers together Wi-MAX doesnot conflict withWi-Fi. It is designed to interoperate withWi-Fiand may indeed complement it. This complementarity to Wi-Fi also extends to all flavors of wiredEthernet (IEEE 802.3), token ring (IEEE 802.5) and non-IEEE standards that use the same Logical Link Control (LLC) including Fiber Distribution Data Interface(FDDI) and cable modem Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification(DOCSIS).BRBRAITT : Nov-20062
 
WIFi – WiMAX : Introduction to WiMAX
4.0
Technical Advantage of Wi-MAX
:IEEE 802.16 networks use the same Logical Link Controller (standardized by IEEE802.2) as other LANs and WANs. It can be both bridged and routed to them. Wi-MAX is a wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) technology that can connectIEEE 802.2 (Wi-Fi) hotspots to the Internet and provide a wireless extension tocable and DSL for last mile (last km) broadband access. IEEE 802.16 provides upto 50 kms (31 miles) of linear service area range and allows users connectivitywithout a direct line of sight to a base station. Note that this should not be taken tomean that users 50 kms (31 miles) away without line of sight will haveconnectivity. The technology also provides shared data rates up to 70 Mbps, which,according to Wi-MAX proponents, is enough bandwidth to simultaneously supportmore than 60 businesses with T1-type connectivity and well over a thousand homesat 1Mbps DSL-level connectivity.An important aspect of the IEEE 802.16 is that it defines aMAClayer that supportsmultiple Physical Layer (PHY) specifications .The MAC is significantly differentfrom that of Wi-Fi (and Ethernet from which Wi-Fi is derived).
In Wi-Fi, the Ethernet uses contention access
: all subscriber stations wishing to pass data through an access point are competing for the Access Points (AP's),attention on a random basis. This can cause distant nodes from the Access Point(AP) to be repeatedly interrupted by less sensitive, closer nodes, greatly reducingtheir throughput. By contrast, the
802.16 MAC
 
is a scheduling MAC where thesubscriber station only has to compete once (for initial entry into the network).After that it is allocated a time slot by the base station. The time slot canenlarge and constrict, but it remains assigned to the subscriber stationmeaning that other subscribers are not supposed to use it but take their turn.This scheduling algorithm is stable under overload and over subscription(unlike 802.11). It is also much more bandwidth efficient. The schedulingalgorithm also allows the base station to control Quality of Service (QoS) bybalancing the assignments among the needs of the subscriber stations.
The Wi-MAX outdistances Wi-Fi by miles. Wi-Fi's range is about 100 feet (30metres). Wi-MAX will blanket a radius of 30 miles (50 kms) with wireless access.
The increased range is due to the frequencies used and the power of thetransmitter.
Wi-MAX is both faster and has a longer range than Wi-Fi. However, Wi-MAXdoes not necessarily conflict with Wi-Fi but is designed to interoperate with it andmay indeed complement it.
5.0
 
Wi-MAX (IEEE 802.16) Specifications:
Range: 30 miles (50-kms) radius from base station.
Speed: 70 Mbps.
Line-of-sight not needed between user and base station.
Frequency bands: 2 to 11 GHz and 10 to 66 GHz (licensed and unlicensed bands).
Defines both the MAC and PHY layers and allows multiple PHY-layer specifications.BRBRAITT : Nov-20063

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