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Completing the Square

# Completing the Square

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This article explains what completing the square is and provides examples illustrating the fundamentals of the technique.
This article explains what completing the square is and provides examples illustrating the fundamentals of the technique.

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02/02/2012

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Klmtahvcin v`h [zxjrh
Mjvv Vrwkci{ocEhbrxjrs :! 24:2
^`jv c{ klmtahvcin v`h {zxjrh<
”Klmtahvcin v`h {zxjrh” c{ v`h mhv`lf x{hf vl rh~rcvh j zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli ci vhrm{ le j {zxjrh) Rhkjaa v`jv j zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli `j{ v`h elrm
j
2
p
2
/
j
:
p
/
j
4
! ~`hrh
p
c{ v`hujrcjbah jif
j
2
!j
:
jif
j
4
jrh rhja ixmbhr{! jif v`jv j {zxjrh c{ jis zxjivcvs vcmh{ cv{hae!~rcvvhi
p
2
) Vl klmtahvh v`h {zxjrh ~h xvcacwh v`h cfhivcvs
:
p
2
/
bp
/
b
2
2
=
p
/
b
2
2
)
(:#Bhelrh klivcixcin! vjoh j mlmhiv vl hptjif v`h {zxjrh li v`h rcn`v-`jif {cfh vl {hh
~`hrh
v`h ahev-`jif {cfh klmh{ erlm jif
~`s
v`hs jrh hzxcujahiv)V`h cfhivcvs ci Hzxjvcli (:# vhaa{ x{ v`jv ~`hihuhr ~h `juh j zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli civ`h {jmh elrm j{ v`h ahev-`jif {cfh ~h kji rh~rcvh cv j{ j {zxjrh) V`h trlkh{{ le rh~rcvcin jzxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli {l v`jv cv mjvk`h{ v`h ahev-`jif {cfh c{ kjaahf ”klmtahvcin v`h {zxjrh)”
@l~ vl klmtahvh v`h {zxjrh
Ci lrfhr vl fhuhalt v`c{ trlkh{{! lb{hruh v`h elrm le v`h zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli ci Hzxjvcli(:#) Ecr{v! v`h ahjfcin klh﬋kchiv c{ :) [hklif! v`h kli{vjiv vhrm fhthif{ li v`h klh﬋kchivle
p
? {thkc﬊kjaas cv mx{v hzxja
b
2
2
)
V`h{h lb{hrujvcli{ mlvcujvh v`h mjci v~l {vht{ le klmtahvcin v`h {zxjrh) V`h trlkh{{! luhrjaa! `j{ v`rhh {vht{7:) Rh~rcvh v`h zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli {l v`jv v`h ahjfcin klh﬋kchiv c{ :?2) Rh~rcvh v`h zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli {l v`jv v`hrh c{ j kli{vjiv vhrm le
b
2
2
? jif;) Rh~rcvh v`h zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli j{ j {zxjrh bs x{cin Hzxjvcli (:#
)
Ahv x{ allo jv j eh~ hpjmtah{ ~`ck` caax{vrjvh `l~ vl klmtahvh v`h {zxjrh)
:
Hzxjvcli (:# c{ kjaahf ji cfhivcvs bhkjx{h cv c{ vrxh elr jis ujaxh le
p
lr
b
) Ci v`c{ {hi{h! cv c{ gx{v acohv`h hzxjvcli elr v`h Fcﬄhrhikh le [zxjrh{7
j
2
b
2
= (
j
/
b
#(
j
b
#lr v`h Tsv`jnlrhji Cfhivcvs
{ci
2
(
ΰ
# /
kl{
2
(
ΰ
# = :
)
:

KLMTAHVCIN V@H [ZXJRH
HPJMTAH :
Klmtahvh v`h {zxjrh li v`h hptrh{{cli
p
2
/ :5
p
/ 56
)
[LAXVCLI) Ecr{v! vl klmtahvh v`h {zxjrh ~h mx{v `juh j ahjfcin klh﬋kchiv le :) [cikhv`c{ c{ jarhjfs v`h kj{h! ~h kji mluh vl [vht 2)V`h {hklif {vht rhzxcrh{ j kli{vjiv vhrm le v`h elrm
b
2
2
) Ci trjkvckh! cv c{ j nllf cfhjvl ac{v v`h elaal~cin zxjivcvch{7
b
= :5
!
b
2
= 0
!
b
2
2
= 56
)
Lb{hruh v`jv v`h kli{vjiv vhrm c{ jarhjfs le v`h elrm
b
2
2
)[l! bs Hzxjvcli (:#! v`h hptrh{{cli kji bh rh~rcvvhi ci v`h elrm
p
/
b
2
2
) Lxr ac{v vhaa{x{ v`jv
b
2
= 0) V`x{!
p
2
/ :5
p
/ 56 = (
p
/ 0#
2
)
Bhelrh threlrmcin [vht 2! ~rcvh v`h ac{v le ujaxh{ elr
b
!
b
2
! jif
b
2
2
) Likh v`h hptrh{{cli c{ci v`h elrm le Hzxjvcli (:#! klmtahvcin v`hi {zxjrh bhklmh{ j {cmtah mjvvhr le {xb{vcvxvcinhjk` zxjivcvs erlm v`h ac{v) Ilvh! `l~huhr! v`jv
v`h zxjivcvs
b
c{ oil~i lias ~`hi v`h ahjfcin klh﬋kchiv c{
:
)
[xk` c{ v`h kj{h ci v`h ihpv hpjmtah)
HPJMTAH 2
Klmtahvh v`h {zxjrh li v`h hptrh{{cli
6
p
2
/ :5
p
/ 0
)
[LAXVCLI) Ilvckh v`jv ci v`c{ hpjmtah v`h klh﬋kchiv le
p
2
c{ ilv :! {l ~h fl ilv cmmh-fcjvhas oil~
b
) Vl lbvjci cv! ejkvlr v`h ahjfcin klh﬋kchiv erlm hjk` vhrm vl nhv6(
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 2#
)
(2#Il~! v`h zxjfrjvck ci v`h tjrhiv`h{h{ `j{ j ahjfcin klh﬋kchiv le : hijbacin x{ vl krhjvhlxr ac{v7
b
= 6
!
b
2
= 2
!
b
2
2
= 6
)
@l~huhr! v`hrh c{ ilv j kli{vjiv vhrm
2
le v`h elrm (
b
2
#
2
trh{hiv ci Hptrh{{cli (2#) Ci lrfhrvl klmtahvh v`h {zxjrh! v`hrh mx{v bh) [l! ~h jff
jif
{xbvrjkv v`h zxjivcvs (
b
2
#
2
= 6 vlnhv6(
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 2# = 6
p
2
/ 6
p
/ (6
6# / 2
= 6
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 6 / (
6 / 2#
= 6(
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 6
2#
)
Lb{hruh v`jv blv` jffcin jif {xbvrjkvcin trh{hruh{ v`h cfhivcvs le Hptrh{{cli (2# ~`cah{cmxavjihlx{as civrlfxkcin lxr ihkh{{jrs kli{vjiv vhrm) [cikh klmtahvcin v`h {zxjrh rh-zxcrh{ j {thkc﬊k kli{vjiv le v`h elrm (
b
2
#
2
~h cnilrh! elr v`h vcmh bhcin! jis lv`hr kli{vjiv{v`jv fli–v ﬊v v`jv elrm) V`jv c{! ~h lias kjrh jblxv v`h
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 6 {cikh cv c{ j threhkv{zxjrh)
2
Rhkjaa v`jv vhrm{ jrh hptrh{{cli{ {htjrjvhf bs jffcvcli! ~`hrhj{ ejkvlr{ jrh {htjrjvhf bs mxavctackjvcli)V`x{! v`h 6 lxv erliv flh{ ilv kli{vcvxvh j vhrm le v`h elrm
b
2
2
)
2

KLMTAHVCIN V@H [ZXJRHEcijaas! j{ ci v`h trhuclx{ hpjmtah! v`h hptrh{{cli
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 6 kji bh rh~rcvvhi ci v`helrm
p
/
b
2
2
) Lxr ac{v vhaa{ x{ v`jv
b
2
= 2) V`x{!6
p
2
/ :5
p
/ 0 = 6
(
p
/ 2#
2
2
= 6(
p
/ 2#
2
0
)
Mjis {vxfhiv{ ehha xiklmelrvjbah ~cv` ejkvlrcin lxv v`h ahjfcin klh﬋kchiv fxrcin v`h﬊r{v {vht) V`h vhmtvjvcli c{ vl ci{vhjf fcucfh hjk` vhrm bs v`h ahjfcin klh﬋kchiv) ^`cah v`c{c{ j uhrs x{hexa vhk`iczxh! cv kji
lias
bh x{hf ~`hi v`h zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli jtthjr{ ~cv`ciji hzxjvcli
;
) V`c{ mjs ncuh v`h cmtrh{{cli v`jv klmtahvcin v`h {zxjrh ~cv` hzxjvcli{ c{flih fcﬄhrhivas v`ji ~cv` hptrh{{cli{) @l~huhr! v`h {jmh v`rhh {vht trlkhfxrh {vcaa jttach{)V`c{ c{ fhmli{vrjvhf ci v`h elaal~cin hpjmtah bs {xttl{cin v`h hptrh{{cli ncuhi ci Hpjmtah2 `jf jtthjrhf ci ji hzxjvcli)
HPJMTAH ;
[lauh v`h zxjfrjvck hzxjvcli
6
p
2
/ :5
p
/ 0 = 4
bs klmtahvcin v`h {zxjrh)
[LAXVCLI) Ci v`c{ hpjmtah! v`h zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli jtthjr{ ci ji hzxjvcli) Vl c{lajvh
p
! ~h ~caa ﬊r{v klmtahvh v`h {zxjrh li v`h zxjfrjvck jif v`hi vjoh v`h {zxjrh rllv li blv`{cfh{ le v`h hzxjvcli)Ilvckh v`jv {cikh v`h zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli jtthjr{ ci ji hzxjvcli! ~h kji klmtahvh {vht: bs fcuc{cli rjv`hr v`ji bs ejkvlrcin) Flcin {l! ~h fcucfh blv` {cfh{ le v`h hzxjvcli bs 6vl nhv
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 2 = 4?lr! mlucin v`h kli{vjiv vl v`h lv`hr {cfh le v`h hzxja {cni!
p
2
/ 6
p
=
2
)
[cikh v`h zxjfrjvck hptrh{{cli c{ v`h {jmh j{ ci v`h trhuclx{ hpjmtah! {l c{ v`h ac{vj{{lkcjvhf ~cv` cv?
b
= 6
!
b
2
= 2
!
b
2
2
= 6
)
V`c{ vcmh! rjv`hr v`ji blv` jffcin jif {xbvrjkvcin! ~h ~caa {cmtas jff v`h zxjivcvs (
b
2
#
2
vl blv` {cfh{ le v`h hzxjvcli7
p
2
/ 6
p
=
2
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 6 = (
2# / 6
p
2
/ 6
p
/ 6 = 2
)
Ilvh v`jv v`c{ `j{ v`h {jmh hﬄhkv j{ blv` jffcin jif {xbvrjkvcin 6 li v`h ahev-`jif {cfh)V`jv c{! cv trh{hruh{ hzxcujahikh) Hjk` hzxjvcli jbluh `j{ v`h {jmh {laxvcli {hv)
;
Rhkjaa v`jv ji hptrh{{cli c{ j mjv`hmjvckja t`rj{h rhtrh{hivcin j ixmbhr jif v`jv ji hzxjvcli hzxjvh{v~l hptrh{{cli{! krhjvcin j {vjvhmhiv ~`ck` c{ hcv`hr vrxh lr eja{h) V`h ujaxh{ ~`ck` mjoh ji hzxjvclivrxh klmtrc{h cv{ {laxvcli {hv) Cv c{ v`h trh{hrujvcli le {laxvcli {hv{ v`jv elrkh{ x{ vl ”fl v`h {jmh v`cin vlblv` {cfh{)” Hjk` vcmh ~h ”fl v`h {jmh v`cin vl blv` {cfh{!” ~h krhjvh j ih~ hzxjvcli) @l~huhr! v`c{ ih~hzxjvcli `j{ v`h {jmh {laxvcli {hv j{ cv{ trhfhkh{{lr)^`hi mjictxajvcin ji hptrh{{cli
ilv
ci ji hzxjvcli! cv vll mx{v bh hzxcujahiv vl cv{ trhfhkh{{lr) @l~-huhr! v`h hzxcujahikh c{ ilv le {laxvcli {hv{! bxv le ujaxh) V`c{ elrkh{ x{ vl fl v`cin{ ~`ck` ~lxaf kjx{h v`hih~ hptrh{{cli vl rhfxkh vl v`h laf lih! {xk` j{ jffcin whrl lr mxavctascin bs lih)
;