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History of Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy

History of Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy

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Published by patodor
Thousands Now Confidently Use The Devastating Power Of Hypnosis Who Never Thought They Could. You don't have to be gifted or psychic to be a successful hypnotist. Anyone can take advantage of the power of hypnosis to get far more out of life…if you have the right knowledge. Learn Hypnosis Now.
Thousands Now Confidently Use The Devastating Power Of Hypnosis Who Never Thought They Could. You don't have to be gifted or psychic to be a successful hypnotist. Anyone can take advantage of the power of hypnosis to get far more out of life…if you have the right knowledge. Learn Hypnosis Now.

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Published by: patodor on Jan 08, 2012
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 ==== ====Easy To Learn Hyponsishttp://tinyurl.com/easytolearnhypnosis ==== ====Hypnosis, the oldest form of psychotherapy (Ellenberger, 1970) If we examine the religious andhealing ceremonies of primitive people we can find the basic elements required to induce thehypnotic trance. It is possible from this to extrapolate that these ceremonial behaviors existedbefore written histories and that the use of rhythmic chanting, monotonous drum beats, togetherwith strained fixations of the eyes accompanied by catalepsy of the rest of the body are of theirselves trance inductions. If we accept this hypothesis, we might deduce that hypnosis as we call itexisted as a method of accessing the unconscious and allowing the unconscious to help theconscious achieve the changes and benefits desired, as long as we have wanted to change ourbehavior. These behaviors would not have been called hypnosis, although hypnotic in behavioruntil Braid in 1842. The oldest written record of cures by 'hypnosis' was obtained from the Ebers Papyrus which givesus an idea about some of the theory and practice of Egyptian medicine before 1552 BC. In theEbers Papyrus, a treatment was described in which the physician placed his hands on the head ofthe patient and claiming superhuman therapeutic powers gave forth with strange remedialutterances which were suggested to the patients and which resulted in cures. Both the Greeks andthe Romans followed the practices of inducing sleep or relaxation state, Hippocrates, discussedthe phenomenon saying, "the affliction suffered by the body, the soul sees quite well with the eyesshut." Unfortunately early Christianity saw the practice as being unholy and linked with nonChristian and banned religious practices and ultimately witchcraft. In the 18th century the most influential figure in the development of hypnosis was Dr Frantz AntonMesmer (1734-1815), an Austrian physician who used magnets and metal frames to perform"passes" over the patient to remove "blockages" (as he saw them the causes of diseases) in themagnetic forces in the body and to induce a trance-like state. In 1775 he discovered that he couldreach equally successful results by passing his hands over the patient, this he would do for hoursat times and he named this method "animal magnetism". In 1784, the Marquis de Puysegur astudent of Dr Mesmer, discovered how to lead a client in to a deep trance state called"somnambulism", using relaxation and calming techniques. The term "somnambulism" is stillwidely used among hypnotherapists today in reference to a deep hypnotic trance state and sleep-walking. This technique was used for many following decades by surgeons in France including Dr.Recamier who performed the first recorded operation without anesthesia in 1821. The Marquis dePuysegur described three cardinal features of this deep trance state or somnambulism. Thesewere: Concentration of the senses on the operator, Acceptance of suggestion from the therapist,Amnesia for events in a trance. Over two hundred years later these three theories of Puysegur stillstand. These uses of mesmerism to facilitate pain free medical procedures were most famouslyemployed by John Elliotson (1791 - 1868) in England and James Esdaile (1808 - 1859) in India.
 In 1841 a Scottish optometrist, Dr James Braid (1775 - 1860) discovered by accident that a personfixating on an object could easily reach a trance state without the help of the mesmeric passesadvocated by Dr Mesmer. He published his findings, refuted Mesmer's work and inaccuratelynamed his discovery "hypnotism" based on the Greek word "Hypnos" which means "sleep". Thiswas an unfortunately choice as hypnosis is not sleep, however the name has remained andmesmerism became hypnotism.During Braid's research into hypnosis he formed the following ideas, most of which still standtoday: 1)That in skilled hands there is no great danger associated with hypnotic treatment and neither isthere pain or discomfort. 2)That a good deal more study and research would be necessary to thoroughly understand anumber of theoretical concepts regarding hypnosis. 3)That hypnosis is a powerful tool which should be limited entirely to trained professionals. 4)That although hypnotism was capable of curing many diseases for which there had formallybeen no remedy, it nevertheless was no panacea and was only a medical tool which should beused in combination with other medical information, drugs, remedies, etc., in order to properly treatthe patient. Auguste Ambrose Liebeault (1823 - 1904), and Hippolyte Bernheim (1840 - l919) founded the'Nancy School', which was of great significance in the establishment of a hypnotherapy acceptablein many quarters. Liebeault is often described as a 'simple country doctor', but by offering to treatthe peasants of Nancy without charge, he was able to amass a considerable experience andexpertise with hypnosis. His first study of hypnosis began in 1860. In 1882 he obtained a cure forsciatica in a patient long treated without success by others. Bernheim was a fashionable doctor in Paris, who began making regular visits to Nancy, and thetwo men became good friends and colleagues. Bernheim published the first part of his book, De laSuggestion, in 1884. The second part, La Therapeutic Suggestive, followed in 1886. Thepublication of these two books raised interest in Liebeault's own book which had been publishedtwenty years earlier and which at the time had only sold one copy. In 1882 Jean-Martin Charcot (1835-1893) presented his findings on hypnotism to the FrenchAcademy of Sciences. Charcot believed that hypnosis was essentially hysteria and, being aneurologist, he was listened to. However Charcot had obtained much of his knowledge ofhypnotism from his work with twelve hysterics at the Saltpetriere, and most of his conclusions onthe subject was based on that tiny sample. The Nancy school opposed Charcot's conclusion andwon acceptance of hypnosis as an essentially normal consequence of suggestion. Pierre Marie Félix Janet (1859 - 1947) a French neurologist and psychologist studiedunder Jean-Martin Charcot at the Psychological Laboratory in Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, in Paris. In several ways, he preceded Sigmund Freud. Manyconsider Janet, rather than Freud, the true founder of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. He firstpublished the results of his research in his philosophy thesis in 1889 and in his medical thesis,
L'état mental des hystériques, in 1892. He was one of the first persons to draw aconnection between earlier events in the subject's life and their present day trauma, and coinedthe words 'dissociation' and ''subconscious's'. It was he who was largely responsible for the'dissociation' theory of hypnosis. This initially opposed to the use of hypnosis until he discoveredits relaxing effects and promotion of healing. In 1898 Janet was appointed lecturer in psychology at the Sorbonne, and in 1902 he attained thechair of experimental and comparative psychology at the Collège de France, a position heheld until 1936. He was a member of the Institut de France from 1913. In 1923 he wrote adefinitive text, La médecine psychologique, on suggestion and in 1928-32, he publishedseveral definitive papers on memory. Whilst he did not publish much in English, his HarvardUniversity lectures in 1908 were published as The Major Symptoms of Hysteria and he receivedan honorary doctorate from Harvard in 1936. Josef Breuer (1842 - 1925) was an Austrian physician, born in Vienna whose works lay thefoundation of psychoanalysis. He graduated from the Akademisches Gymnasium of Vienna in1858 and then studied at the university for one year, before enrolling in the medical school of theUniversity of Vienna. He passed his medical exams in 1867 and went to work as assistant to theinternist Johann Oppolzer at the university. Josef Breuer discovered that, while hypnotised, somepeople could recall past events which seemed to help cure ailments they may have. He called thisa "talking cure". This was put to use by the German army in the First World War who treated shellshock through hypnosis. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the father of psycho-analysis, used hypnosis in his early work butbecame disillusioned by the concept. There is a belief that he did not have the patience necessaryfor hypnosis and was not a good hypnotist. He became involved in hypnosis between1883-1887and practiced for some time and in 1885 Freud spent some time with Charcot, and was veryimpressed. He also translated into German Bernheim's De la Suggestion. In Vienna, Freud and his friend Joseph Breuer used hypnosis successfully in psychotherapy andin 1895, they produced their classic 'Studies in Hysteria' Freud had visited Nancy in 1889, and thisvisit had convinced him of the 'powerful mental processes which nevertheless remain hidden fromthe consciousness of men'. He discovered the 'positive transference' when a female patient hehad awakened from hypnosis threw her arms around his neck. On this Freud wrote 'I was modestenough not to attribute the event to my own irresistible personal attraction, and I felt that I had nowgrasped the nature of the mysterious element that was at work behind hypnotism'. Later however, he was to abandon hypnosis saying that it was ineffective, and concentrated ondeveloping psychoanalysis. He focused his attention on analysis and free association, this"defection" was damaging to hypnosis particularly in the context of psychology as it createdenduring prejudices and misconceptions which have only started to fade in recent times. With thedevelopment of psychoanalysis and the use of anesthetics, the interest in hypnosis declined. Another precursor of modern hypnosis and self development was Dr. Emile Coué (1857 -1926) who, at the end of the 19th century, was a believer in auto-suggestion and in the role of thehypnotist as a facilitator of change and healing by involving the total participation of the client inthe hypnosis process. By 1887 Coué was developing the theory of auto-suggestion, whichis perhaps the first time ego-strengthening (a mainstay of traditional occult and shamanistic

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