Students who demonstrated a partial understanding of the order of operations stayed in the classroom for
the teacher-led portion of the lesson and participated in a guided practice activity. (I usually include such anactivity after whole-group instruction.)
hese students then worked on the enrichment activities listed above.Students who had shown little understanding of this concept participated in the whole-group lesson,watching and listening as I used a think-aloud to model the correct order of operations.
hey then addednotes to their interactive notebook, including examples, and worked through a cooperative learning activity. Igave small groups of these learners cards of practice problems. After a student chose a card, the entiregroup simplified the problem on individual whiteboards; when everyone was done, students compared their boards.
he last part of class time was dedicated to independent work with order of operations. As students
worked, I helped as needed and checked in with the groups of students working on enrichment activities.
In a standards-based classroom, after students complete the learning activities in a unit, another assessment covering the objectives is in order. I score these tests and record the results. But because myaim is formative, students see their results not as letter grades, but as feedback about progress on each of the learning objectives (Chappuis & Chappuis, 2007).
re 1. Gra
e for an En
Order of operations 1±5 5 3.5Mental math 6±9 4 2.5Evaluating expressions 10±13 6 4.5
ranslatingexpressions14±16 7 5.5Writing expressions 17±21 7 5
o manage this much formative data for all my students, I use a sheet that shows each learner's raw scorefor each learning objective assessed. As shown in Figure 1, this sheet indicates which math problemsmeasure that objective, the highest number of points one can earn on those problems, and what score onthe problem set is considered proficient.
he number of problems or level of points allocated to thatparticular objective shows its importance in the unit. Organizing assessments according to objectives helpsme maintain a reasonable time frame for grading.
o keep my own detailed record of progress, I enter eachstudent's score for each learning objective separately into my grade book (see fig. 2).