lands. John demanded that William hand over his second son as a hostage. Despitecontrary advice given to him, William gave John his son, because of his loyalty to hislord. William proved himself to be a most loyal vassal despite his animosity towardJohn.William believed that honor was an important virtue that all chivalrous knightsmust follow. Fulbert of Chartres wrote, “He who swears fealty to his lord out always tohave these six things in memory…honorable, that he should not be injurious to him in his justice or in any other matters that pertain to his honor;”
William believed that honor also pertained as a part of the rules of chivalrous conduct in battle. He believed that atrue knight should not ambush his enemy, but to meet him in open field to engage him. Achivalrous knight should only have advantages in the overall quality of himself and hiscomrades. William Marshal was honorable for what he did not do as well. In anengagement with Richard Coeur de Lion, Richard was not fully equipped for combat.William did not strike Richard, because doing so would be dishonorable. Rather,William killed Richard’s horse and spared the life of the future king. Also, William didnot fight for money, but for honor and glory. He often captured his opponents andreceived much wealth for doing so, but this did not make him wealthy, because he spenthis money on his friends so that he could be admired.In order for a man to be truly chivalrous he was required to be brave in the face of his enemies. Such bravery was exemplified in the
Song of Roland
:Spurring his horse, he gallops up a hill,Summons the French, and speaks these solemn words:“My lords and barons, Charles has left us here,
Brian Tierney and Joan Scott, Western Societies, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000), P.192.