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Chapter II the Centrifugal Fire Pump

Chapter II the Centrifugal Fire Pump

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Published by mjsebas

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Published by: mjsebas on Jan 10, 2012
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CHAPTER IITHE CENTRIFUGAL FIRE PUMPA pump can be describedas "any ofvarious mechanical devices which utilize an external sourceof power to apply a force to a liquid or gas". There are many types of these devices, eachsuitedto a particular purpose, with none universally best for all applications. Pumps can generally becategorized into two basic groupings, according to whether they discharge liquid or gas involumes separatedby a period of no discharge positive displacement), or in a continuous flow(non-positive displacement).A positive displacement pump dischargesa definite volume of liquid or gas in each cycle ofpump operation, provided that the motive force driving the pump is greater han any resistanceoffered to the movement of the material being actedupon. The rotary vane priming pump is sucha pump. The vanes create chambers n the casing of the pump. This separation of the liquid orgas is constant due to the definite volume of each chamber and must have a open dischargeoutlet. If the discharge outlet of a positive displacement type pump, when pumping anincompressible material, were completely closed, either the driving force would be stalled, orsomething would break.A non-positive displacementpump in operation dischargesa volume of liquid in each cycle ofoperation which is dependentupon the resistanceoffered to the movement of the liquid beingpumped. This type of pump exerts a force upon the liquid that is constant for any given speedof the pump. When a resistanceequal to the force being exerted by the pump is presented o itsdischarge, the material reaches a state of equilibrium and does not move. This is due to thedesign of the pump casing area which allows the impeller to move freely without dischargingwater. Nothing more will happen,except hat the pump will chum the liquid, there by generatingheat.One ype of non-positive displacementpump applies an action to liquids by rotating them n sucha manner as o achieve a centrifugal force (the force tending to make rotating bodies move awayfrom the center ofrotation). This type ofpump is referred to as a "centrifugal pump". The basicprinciples ofhow a centrifugal pump developsvelocity and pressure,aswell as he basic designs of a centrifugal pump, are explained in this chapterIf a small amount of water is placed at the center of a rapidly rotating turntable, it would bethrown off. In other words, the turntable will impart horizontal radial velocity to the water. Thefaster the turntable is rotated, the further the water will be thrown, due to more velocity beingimparted to the water
Should some water be placed n a container and then rotated on the turntable, as n Figure l, thewater at the center of the container would begin to move outward. However, the water at theouter edge cannot move outward becauseof the walls of the container, so it moves upward;which shows that pressure has been created in the water. The height to which it goes, (thepressure hat is created) dependsupon the speedof rotation. Therefore, by confining the water,the velocity imparted by the turntable is converted o pressure. n this illustration there was nowater either entering or leaving the container, so all of the velocity must have been convertedinto pressure.
TURNT ABLE AND GLASS PICTUREIGURE 1:The centrifugal pump employs an impeller as the means of imparting velocity to the water thatenters the pump. This impeller is mounted on a shaft, which is turned by a motive force. Figure2, shows one view of a typical impeller. In operation, water is introduced at the center inlet ofthe rapidly rotating impeller; is partially confined by the sides and vanes of the impeller; and isthrown by centrifugal force to the outer edge. Its path of travel is not a straight line however; dueto the rotation of the impeller, it takes a spiral path through the impeller. Since the outer edgeof the impeller is traveling at a much faster rate than the edge of the inlet, additional velocity isimparted to the water as it approaches the outer rim. This tangential velocity increase occursbecause the radius of the water path spiral increases and the water travels a greater distance perrevolution
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