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Study on Denim Treatments

Study on Denim Treatments

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Published by Shilank

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Shilank on Jan 10, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Study on Denim treatments
Part 1
Literature Survey Page 1
Scope of Work
The prior study dealt with the efficiency of a few wetting agents. Thereafter the applicationof wetting agents in the decolourisation of denim fabric is studied. Various oxidizing andreducing agents were used to either decolourise denim or change its colour. Some novel effectson Denim fabric were obtained. Below is Part 1 of the Literature study, the next part deals withExperimentation and Results.
Study on Denim treatments
Part 1
Literature Survey Page 2
Indigo has been used as a dye for as much as 4,000 years but it wasn‘t until 1883 that its
chemical structure was elucidated. However, its interaction with permanganate had not beenstudied in much depth until recently when E. Malik found isatin and anthranilic acid among theoxidation products that occur when indigo dye is bleached with potassium permanganate. It isalso well know and documented that isatin is formed in high yield when indigo is oxidized withnitric acid or chromic acid or a mixture of the two.The formation of isatin from indigo due to permanganate oxidation is understandable fromthe general reactive behaviour of KMnO4 toward carbon-carbon double bonds, which in greatmany cases results in the cleaving of the double bonds with the formation of carbonylcompounds.
Because the central double bond is also part of indigo‘s chromophoric group, the bleaching
action of KMnO
on this dye is also explainable. What is more difficult to understand is how freeanthranilic acid can occur as the end product of permanganate oxidation in light of the fact thatall aminobenzoic acids, when unprotected at the amino groups, are rapidly degraded in thepresence of permanganate.Metallic salts may combine with indigo oxidation by
products such as anthranilic acid toform a latent yellowish discolouration product in acid wash denim which is wet processed bypotassium permanganation. Assessments made by M. N. Larsen using atomic absorptionspectrometry indicate that a reduction in some denim metallic salt levels is associated withreduced yellowing.Potassium permanganate is one of the preferred bleaching agents for the so-called acid washprocess used industrially to create special looks in denim garments. These looks can range fromvery slight random bleaching effects to an almost complete white out of the blue indigo dye.
Study on Denim treatments
Part 1
Literature Survey Page 3
Residual chemicals from the oxidation process can certainly leave a residue behind,especially if the rinsing is inadequate. Potassium permanganate oxidation of indigo results inmanganese dioxide
a brown, water-insoluble compound.3 Indigo + 2 KMnO
+ 4H
O = 6 Isatin + 2MnO
+ 2KOH6 Isatin + 4 KMnO
+ H
O = 6 Anthranilic acid + 6CO
+ 4MnO
 Oxidation of indigo is generally achieved by using potassium permanganate solutions,resulting in products isatin and anthranilic acid. Further by-products have also been suggested byMalik. Isatin is an orange-coloured water soluble product. Anthranilic acid is a white to paleyellow crystalline powder, which is also water-soluble.With proper washing and rinsing, these chemicals should be rinsed away. The presence of highconcentrations of aluminium and the fact that the yellow compound is difficult to remove has ledRucker et. al, to postulate that the aluminium can mordant with the primary amine beingdiazotized and coupling to form a yellow dye.As with all wet-processes involving chemicals, a good rinse is always necessary in order toremove any chemicals which can irritate the skin of the purchaser, oxidize or photo-react tocause a problem later on. Yellowing does not occur immediately but occurs during storage. Agood rinse with soap in the first rinse is always a good idea. It has also been shown in otherwashing and rinsing studies that several short rinses with fresh water is better than one long rinsefor an equal length of time. The experience has also shown that yellow discolouration inpermanganate frosted garments can be caused by incomplete removal of either the manganesedioxide or the divalent manganese in the neutralization and rinsing steps, respectively.
 Over the last few decades varies garment washing techniques have been used on differentmaterial types to create special colour effects and washed looks are achieved particularly in

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