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US Energy Utility Census 2012

US Energy Utility Census 2012

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Energy and Utilities 581
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012
Section 19
Energy and Utilities
This section presents statistics on fuelresources, energy production andconsumption, electric energy,hydroelectric power, nuclear power,solar and wind energy, biomass, and theelectric and gas utility industries. Theprincipal sources are the U.S. Departmentof Energy’s Energy Information Adminis-tration (EIA), the EdisonElectric Institute, Washington, DC, and theAmerican Gas Association, Arlington, VA.The Department of Energy was created inOctober 1977 and assumed and central-ized the responsibilities of all or part of several agencies including the FederalPower Commission (FPC), the U.S. Bureauof Mines, the Federal Energy Administra-tion, and the U.S. Energy Research andDevelopment Administration. For addi-tional data on transportation, see Section23; on fuels, see Section 18; and onenergy–related housing characteristics,see Section 20.The EIA, in its
Annual Energy Review 
,provides statistics and trend data onenergy supply, demand, and prices.Information is included on petroleum andnatural gas, coal, electricity, hydroelectricpower, nuclear power, solar, wind, wood,and geothermal energy. Among its annualreports are
Annual Energy Review 
Electric Power Annual; Natural Gas Annual;Petroleum Supply Annual; State Energy Consumption, Price,
ExpenditureData; U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas,
 Natural Gas Liquids Reserves;Electric Sales and Revenue; Annual Energy Outlook;
International Energy Statistics.
These various reports containstate, national, and international data onthe production of electricity, net summercapability of generating plants, fuels usedin energy production, energy sales andconsumption, and hydroelectric power.The EIA also issues the
Monthly Energy Review 
, which presents current supply,disposition, and price data and monthlypublications on petroleum, coal, naturalgas, and electric power.Data on residential energy consumption,expenditures, and conservation activi-ties are available from EIA’s ResidentialEnergy Consumption Survey (RECS) andare published every 4 years. The Commer-cial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey(CBECS), conducted on a quadrennialbasis, collects information on the stock of U.S. commercial buildings, their energy-related characteristics, and their energyconsumption and expenditures. Data onmanufacturing energy consumption, use,and expenditures are also collected every4 years from EIA’s Manufacturing EnergyConsumption Survey (MECS). Due to thelong gaps between the RECS, CBECS, andMECS, tables are rotated in and out of Section 19 in an eort to keep the dataas current as possible. The results fromthese surveys are published at<http://www.eia.gov/consumption/>.The Edison Electric Institute’s monthlybulletin and annual
Statistical Year Book of the Electric Utility Industry for the Year 
contain data on the distribution of electricenergy by public utilities; information onthe electric power supply, expansion of electric generating facilities, and themanufacture of heavy electric powerequipment is presented in the annual
Year-End Summary of the Electric Power Situation in the United States.
The Ameri-can Gas Association, in its monthly andquarterly bulletins and its yearbook,
Gas Facts 
, presents data on gas utilities andnancial and operating statistics.
Btu conversion factors
—Various energysources are converted from original unitsto the thermal equivalent using Britishthermal units (Btu). A Btu is the amount of energy required to raise the temperatureof 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit(F) at or near 39.2 degrees F. Factors arecalculated annually from the latest nalannual data available; some are revisedas a result. The following list providesconversion factors used in 2009 forproduction and consumption, in that
582 Energy and Utilities
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012
order, for various fuels: Petroleum, 5.800and 5.301 mil. Btu per barrel; total coal,19.969 and 19.742 mil. Btu per short ton;and natural gas (dry), 1,025 Btu per cubicfoot for both. The factors for the produc-tion of nuclear power and geothermalpower were 10,460 and 21,017 Btu perkilowatt-hour, respectively. The fossil fuelsteam–electric power plant generationfactor of 9,760 Btu per kilowatt-hour—was used for hydroelectric powergeneration and for wood and waste,wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermalenergy consumed at electric utilities.
Electric power industry
—In recentyears, EIA has restructured the industrycategories it once used to gather andreport electricity statistics. The electricpower industry, previously divided intoelectric utilities and non–utilities, nowconsists of the Electric Power Sector, theCommercial Sector, and the IndustrialSector.The Electric Power Sector is composed of electricity-only and combined-heat-andpower plants (CHPs) whose primarybusiness is to sell electricity, or electricityand heat, to the public.Electricity-only plants are composed of traditional electric utilities, andnontraditional participants, includingenergy service providers, powermarketers, independent power produc-ers (IPPs), and the portion of CHPs thatproduce only electricity.A utility is dened as a corporation,person, agency, authority, or other legalentity or instrumentality aligned withdistribution facilities for delivery of electric energy for use primarily by thepublic. Electric utilities include investor-owned electric utilities, municipal andstate utilities, federal electric utilities, andrural electric cooperatives. In total, thereare more than 3,100 electric utilities inthe United States.An independent power producer is anentity dened as a corporation, person,agency, authority, or other legal entityor instrumentality that owns or operatesfacilities whose primary business is toproduce electricity for use by the public.They are not generally aligned withdistribution facilities and are notconsidered electric utilities.Combined-heat-and-power producers areplants designed to produce both heatand electricity from a single heat source.These types of electricity producers canbe independent power producers orindustrial or commercial establishments.As some independent power producersare CHPs, their information is included inthe data for the combined-heat-and-powersector. There are approximately 2,800unregulated independent powerproducers and CHPs in the United States.The Commercial Sector consists of com-mercial CHPs and commercial electricity–only plants. Industrial CHPs and industrialelectricity–only plants make up the Indus-trial Sector. For more information, pleaserefer to the
Electric Power Annual 2009 
 Web site at <http://www.eia..gov/cneaf /electricity/epa/epa_sum.html>.
Energy and Utilities 583
U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012
Table 924. Utilities—Employees, Annual Payroll, and Establishmentsby Industry: 2008
[54,946 represents $54,946,000,000. Excludes most government employees, railroad employees, and self-employed persons, etc.An establishment is a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations areperformed. See Appendix III]Industry2007NAICScode
Annualpayroll(mil. dol.)Averagepayrollperemploy-ee (dol.)Establishments by employment size-classTotalUnder20employ-ees20 to99employ-ees100 to499employ-ees500employ-eesand over
Utilities, total 22639,40354,94685,93316,96011,7173,8861,172185
Electric power generation,transmission and distribution .....2211510,73546,04290,1489,7445,6842,973918169Electric power generation .......22111122,61011,91097,1402,0871,25655023150Hydroelectric power generation ..2211114,37141093,8303092683641Fossil fuel electric powergeneration .................22111273,4086,58389,6831,2506194192048Nuclear electric powergeneration .................22111338,0294,341114,1468319121141Other electric powergeneration .................2211196,80257684,6684453508312Electric power transmission,control & distribution ..........22112388,12534,13287,9407,6574,4282,423687119Electric bulk power transmission& control ..................2211216,452647100,230794616134Electric power distribution ......221122381,67333,48587,7327,5784,3822,407674115Natural gas distribution ..........221285,5426,70978,4282,4001,61856120714Water, sewage, & other systems ...221343,1262,19550,8994,8164,415352472Water supply & irrigationsystems ....................2213134,7241,76150,7154,0823,785255402Sewage treatment facilities ......221326,36329145,764663590694Steam & air-conditioning supply ..221332,03914370,0477140283– Represents zero.
North American Industry Classication System, 2007; see text, Section 15.
Covers full- and part-timeemployees who are on the payroll in the pay period including March 12.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, “County Business Patterns,” July 2010, <http://www.census.gov/econ/cbp/index.html>.
Table 923. Utilities—Establishments, Revenue, Payroll, and Employeesby Kind o Business: 2007
[584,193 represents $584,193,000,000.
Includes only establishments or rms with payroll. Data based on the 2007 EconomicCensus. See headnote, Table 755 and Appendix III]Kind of business2007NAICScode
Establish-ments(number)RevenueAnnual payrollPaidemployeesfor payperiodincludingMarch 12(number)Total(mil. dol.)Per paidemployee(dol.)Total(mil. dol.)Per paidemployee(dol.)Utilities ...........................2216,578584,193916,74451,65481,057637,247Electric power generation, transmission, &distribution .........................22119,554445,693871,36843,61885,277511,487Electric power generation ..............221111,934120,968985,13411,29792,001122,793Hydroelectric power generation .........2211112952,185534,77329071,0924,086Fossil fuel electric power generation .....2211121,24885,3621,140,2836,41385,66774,860Nuclear electric power generation .......2211137928,996763,6034,083107,52537,972Other electric power generation ........2211193124,425753,25251186,9275,875Electric power transmission, control &distribution ........................221127,620324,726835,42832,32183,153388,694Electric bulk power transmission &control ...........................221121744,268697,99754388,7956,114Electric power distribution .............2211227,546320,458837,62531,77883,063382,580Natural gas distribution .................22122,377128,5551,542,0006,03872,42083,369Water, sewage, & other systems ..........22134,6479,944234,5821,99847,12542,391Water supply & irrigation systems ........221313,8897,623225,0701,59647,11533,871Sewage treatment facilities .............221326891,309187,71829742,6346,974Steam & air-conditioning supply .........22133691,012654,37510567,6031,546
North American Industry Classication System, 2007; see text, Section 15.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, “2007 Economic Census.” See also <http://www.census.gov/econ/census07/>, accessedSeptember 2010.

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