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Computer System and Peripherals

Computer System and Peripherals

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Published by edudivya
KSOU BCA books
KSOU BCA books

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Published by: edudivya on Jan 11, 2012
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EDUPROZ INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES(
YOUR EDUCATION YOUR WAY
)EDUPROZ INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES(
YOUR EDUCATION YOUR WAY
)
SEC-7, DWARKA
11
Unit-1To Understand the Basics of The Computer
Hello! Students, in today’s information age, computers are Being used in everyoccupation. They are used by people of all age and profession, in their work as well astheir leisure. This new social age have changed the basic concept of’ computing’.Computing, in today’s information age, is no more limited to computer programmers andcomputer engineers. Rather than knowing how to program a computer, most computerusers simply need to understand how computer functions so in this lecture I will bediscussing with you about this versatile tool, why is it so powerful and useful, its historyand you will also be briefed about the classification of computers its devices in mytoday’s lecture. What is a Computer? A computer is an electronic machine that acceptsinformation, stores it until the information is needed, processes the information according
 
to the instructions provided by the user, and finally returns the results to the user. Thecomputer can store and manipulate large quantities of data at very high speed, but acomputer cannot think. A computer makes decisions based on simple comparisons suchas one number being larger than another. Although the computer can help solve atremendous variety of problems, it is simply a machine. It can not solve problems on itsown.
Computer Tasks
1
 
Input2
 
Storage3
 
Processing4
 
OutputWhen a computer is asked to do a job, it handles the task in a very special way.
1.
It accepts the information from the user. This is called input.
2
. It stored the information until it is ready for use. The computer has memory chips,which are designed to hold information until it is needed.
3
. It processes the information. The computer has an electronic brain called the CentralProcessing Unit, which is responsible for processing all data and instructions given to theComputer.
4.
It then returns the processed information to the user. This is called output. Everycomputer has special parts to do each of the jobs listed above. Whether it is a multi-million dollar mainframe or a thousand dollar personal computer, it has the followingfour Components, Input, Memory, Central Processing, and Output. The centralprocessing unit is made up of many components, but two of them are worth mentioning atthis point. These are the arithmetic and logic unit and the control unit. The control unitcontrols the electronic flow of information around the computer. The arithmetic and logicunit, ALU, is responsible for mathematical calculations and logical comparisons. InputDevices
 
 
EDUPROZ INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES(
YOUR EDUCATION YOUR WAY
)EDUPROZ INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES(
YOUR EDUCATION YOUR WAY
)
SEC-7, DWARKA
221
 
· Keyboard2
 
· Mouse3
 
· Scanner4
 
· Microphone5
 
· CD-ROM6
 
· Joystick 
OPERATING SYSTEM
A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computerhardware.
Operating system goals
:1.
 
Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier.
 
2.
 
Make the computer system convenient to use3.
 
Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.
COMPUTER SYSTEM STRUCTURE
Computer system can be divided into four components1.
 
Hardware
– provides basic computing resourcesa. CPU, memory, I/O devices
2.
 
Operating system
b. Controls and coordinates use of hardware among various applications andusers3.
 
Application programs
– define the ways in which the system resources are usedto solve the computing problems of the usersc. Word processors, compilers, web browsers, database systems, videogames
4.
 
Users
d. People, machines, other computers
 
 
EDUPROZ INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES(
YOUR EDUCATION YOUR WAY
)EDUPROZ INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES(
YOUR EDUCATION YOUR WAY
)
SEC-7, DWARKA
33
COMPUTER SYSTEM DEFINATIONOS is
a
resource allocator
1.
 
Manages all resources.2.
 
Decides between conflicting requests for efficient and fair resource use.
OS is a
 
control program
1.
 
Controls execution of programs to prevent errors and improper use of thecomputer.
 
COMPUTERSYSTEM SATRTUP
Bootstrap program is loaded at power-up or reboot-1.
 
Typically stored in ROM or EPROM, generally known as firmware.2.
 
Initialized all aspects of system.3.
 
Loads operating system kernel and starts execution.
COMPUTER SYSTEM ORGANIZATION
Computer-system operation-1.
 
One or more CPUs, device controllers connect through common bus providingaccess to shared memory2.
 
Concurrent execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles
COMPUTER SYSTEM OPERATION
1.
 
I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently.2.
 
Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type.3.
 
Each device controller has a local buffer.4.
 
CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers5.
 
I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller.6.
 
Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing aninterrupt.
OOPPEERRAATTIINNGGSSYYSSTTEEMMSSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE 
Multiprogramming needed for efficiency-

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