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Mayer August, Wiesbauer Gerald and Spitzlinger Markus- Applications of Hopfield Networks

Mayer August, Wiesbauer Gerald and Spitzlinger Markus- Applications of Hopfield Networks

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University of Salzburg, Institute for Computer SciencePS Introduction to BioinformaticsSS 1999
Applications of Hopfield Networks
Mayer August ags@gmx.netWiesbauer Gerald gerald.wiesbauer@sbg.ac.atSpitzlinger Markus mspitzl@cosy.sbg.ac.atLeader:Dipl.Ing. Mag. Roland Schwaiger rschwaiger@cosy.sbg.ac.at
Version from November 4, 1999
 
Abstract
This document gives an overview of the structure of Hopfield Networks (HN) and describes some applications indetail. Afterashortgeneraldescriptionofneuralnetworks,thehopfieldnetworksandtheavailablelearningmethodsare described to some detail. A number of applications such as the TSP problem and pattern recognition and finallya programmingproject concerning the usage of HN in pattern recognition are discussed. The project includes somealgorithms of image processing and feature space transformation to prepare the input picture for the network.
 
Contents
1 Introduction 3
1.1 About Neural Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1.1 A simple Adaptable Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1.2 Network Stuctures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2 History of Neural Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.3 About Hopeld Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.3.1 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.3.2 Formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.3.3 Example for using a trained net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.3.4 Learning in Hopeld Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.3.5 The training algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.3.6 Network training The calculating method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.3.7 Network training Training by giving examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.4 Hopeld Nets and the Boltzmann Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2 Applications of Hopeld Networks 12
2.1 The Travelling Salesperson Problem (TSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.1.1 About the Travelling Salesman Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.1.2 Approximation of TSP with Hopfield Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.2 Pattern Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.2.1 About Pattern Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.2.2 Pattern Recognition with Hopfield Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.3 Associative memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3 Programming project: Object recognition with Hopeld Networks 15
3.1 Parts and limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.2 Object Separation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.3 Transformation into feature space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.4 The hopeld network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.5 The main programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.5.1 Organization of the programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

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