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Introduction to Sociology

Introduction to Sociology

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Published by: Putrimales on Nov 07, 2008
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Introduction toSociology
Edition 1.0 6th March 2006From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection
 Note: current version of this book can be found at http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology
 
2
Contents
I
NTRODUCTION TO
S
OCIOLOGY
.................................................................................................................................1A
UTHORS
...................................................................................................................................................................6I
NTRODUCTION
..........................................................................................................................................................7
 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................7 What is Sociology?...............................................................................................................................................7  History..................................................................................................................................................................8Sociology and Other Social Sciences.................................................................................................................11Sociology Today.................................................................................................................................................13Technology and the Social Sciences...................................................................................................................13 References..........................................................................................................................................................13External links.....................................................................................................................................................14
S
OCIOLOGICAL METHODS
........................................................................................................................................15
 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................15The Development of Social Science ...................................................................................................................16 The Scientific Method.........................................................................................................................................17 Correlation and Causation ................................................................................................................................21Quantitative and Qualitative..............................................................................................................................23Objective vs. Critical..........................................................................................................................................24Ethics..................................................................................................................................................................24What Can Sociology Tell Us?............................................................................................................................25 Notes ..................................................................................................................................................................26  References..........................................................................................................................................................26 External Links....................................................................................................................................................26 
G
ENERAL SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY
...........................................................................................................................27
 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................27 Structural-Functionalism...................................................................................................................................28Conflict Theory ..................................................................................................................................................30Symbolic Interactionism.....................................................................................................................................31 Role Theory........................................................................................................................................................32Social Constructionism......................................................................................................................................34 Integration Theory.............................................................................................................................................34 Notes ..................................................................................................................................................................35 References..........................................................................................................................................................35External Links....................................................................................................................................................36 
S
OCIETY
..................................................................................................................................................................38
 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................38Societal Development.........................................................................................................................................38Classical Views on Social Change.....................................................................................................................44 Notes ..................................................................................................................................................................47  References..........................................................................................................................................................47 External Links....................................................................................................................................................48
C
ULTURE
.................................................................................................................................................................50
 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................50Subcultures & Countercultures..........................................................................................................................53Ethnocentrism & Cultural Relativism................................................................................................................54Theories of Culture ............................................................................................................................................55Cultural Change.................................................................................................................................................56 Cultural Sociology: Researching Culture..........................................................................................................57  Notes ..................................................................................................................................................................58 References..........................................................................................................................................................58External links.....................................................................................................................................................59
 
3
S
OCIALIZATION
.......................................................................................................................................................60
What is Socialization?........................................................................................................................................60Elements of Socialization...................................................................................................................................60Theoretical Understandings of Socialization.....................................................................................................64 Research Examples............................................................................................................................................65 Notes ..................................................................................................................................................................67  References..........................................................................................................................................................67  History................................................................................................................................................................68
G
ROUPS
...................................................................................................................................................................69
 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................69Social Identity Theory........................................................................................................................................71Primary and Secondary Groups.........................................................................................................................74 Leadership..........................................................................................................................................................75Conformity .........................................................................................................................................................75 Reference Groups...............................................................................................................................................75 Ingroups and Outgroups....................................................................................................................................75Group Size..........................................................................................................................................................75 Networks ............................................................................................................................................................80 Notes ..................................................................................................................................................................84 References..........................................................................................................................................................84External Links....................................................................................................................................................85
D
EMOGRAPHY
.........................................................................................................................................................87
 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................87 Why study demography?....................................................................................................................................87  History................................................................................................................................................................87  Data and Methods..............................................................................................................................................87 The Demographic Transition.............................................................................................................................92Population Growth and Overpopulation............................................................................................................94 Notes ..................................................................................................................................................................99 References..........................................................................................................................................................99External Links..................................................................................................................................................100
H
UMAN SEXUALITY
...............................................................................................................................................102D
EVIANCE AND NORMS
..........................................................................................................................................102
 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................102Theories of Deviance .......................................................................................................................................103Crime Statistics................................................................................................................................................107 Social Control..................................................................................................................................................116  Notes ................................................................................................................................................................117  References........................................................................................................................................................117  History..............................................................................................................................................................117 External Links..................................................................................................................................................117 
S
OCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
............................................................................................................................................118
Subfields...........................................................................................................................................................118SP's three angles of research...........................................................................................................................118The concerns of social psychology...................................................................................................................119Empirical methods ...........................................................................................................................................120 Relation to other fields.....................................................................................................................................121 Major perspectives in social psychology .........................................................................................................125Well-known cases, studies, and related works.................................................................................................130 History..............................................................................................................................................................131 References........................................................................................................................................................131 Related topics...................................................................................................................................................131
A
GEING
..................................................................................................................................................................132R
ACE AND ETHNICITY
............................................................................................................................................133

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