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Table Of Contents

1.1. Background
1.2. The pitfalls of recruitment
1.3. Justification for the study
1.4. Purpose and objectives of the study
1.5. Methodology
1.5.1. Sampling criteria and the sample selection process
Selection of the migrants
Selection of the recruiting agencies and the stakeholders
1.6. Research Assumptions
1.7. The analysis plan
Section 2 THE SEARCH FOR A ‘BHALO’ VISA
2.1. Contextual analysis of the migrants’ situations
2.2. The migrants’ socio-economic characteristics
2.3. The migrants’ family background
2.4. The context of migration decision-making
Bhalo visa: A route to advancement or entrapment?
Low incomes hunger and desperation
The debt trap
Unemployment
Getting away from family discord and anti-social habits
Demonstration effect of fellow villagers
The role of sub-agents
3.2. The reasons for choosing a particular recruitment channel
Trust and loyalty
Assurance of support at destination
Familiarity and proximity
3.3. Visa category and recruitment channels
3.4. Level of migrants’ information at the pre- departure stage
3.5. Determining factors for choosing a particular country of destination
The strength of social capital in the destination country
Chance to visit a religious place
Job opportunities available
The Umra Visa and the reduced cost of migration
Migration by default
3.6. Problems faced during the migration process
3.6.1. The cost of migration
3.6.2. Financing migration
3.6.3. Problems in the procurement of migration- related services
Changed Identity
Delay in the delivery of passport
Pre-migration medical check-up
Section 4 PAWA-NAPAWA: GAINS AND LOSSES FROM MIGRATION
4.1. The Migration and Post-Migration Stages: Gains and Losses
4.2. Insights from the migrants’ work experiences in the destination country
4.2.1. Employment-related experience
4.2.2. Wages
4.2.3. Working conditions and other entitlements
4.3. Food and accommodation
4.4. Other problems
Police arrest
Language problems
Physical and verbal abuse and sexual harassment
4.5. Reasons for deception regarding workers’ job-related entitlements
4.6. The migrants’ responses to their problems
4.7. The outcomes of migration
Overseas incomes vis-à-vis the cost of migration
“Job satisfaction”
Remittances
Repayment of outstanding loans
The employment situation after return
Marriage and marital breakdown
Litigation and conflict
Illness, accidents and the migration outcome
Section 5 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Policy imperatives
5.2. Ensuring regulatory compliance
5.3. Providing services to migrant workers at destination
5.4. Policies to build the capacity of migrant workers
5.5. Concluding remarks
References
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Afsar_Unraveling the Vicious Cycle of Recruitment

Afsar_Unraveling the Vicious Cycle of Recruitment

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Published by Katie Rainwater

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Published by: Katie Rainwater on Jan 12, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/12/2012

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