324 SUSB Vol.2 No.4 Dec.2011W. Hien, S. Jusuf, R. Samsudin, A. Eliza, and M. Ignatius
into urban design guidelines.To improve the urban environment quality and mitigateUHI effect, a climatic map of an urban area is possible tobe developed by using Geographic Information System(GIS) platform with analysis on different information layers.Climatic mapping method has become widely used forurban planning from macro to micro level and can be usedas reference for future urban planning and development.The objective of this study is to see how different designoptions can be explored on developing a block within ahighly dense urban area, along with their impact on therelated urban microclimatic condition (in this case, urbantemperature on pedestrian level). The design options variationare limited on varying building massing and building physicaldimension accordingly, within the same plot ratio control.
2. SCREENING TOOL FOR ESTATE ENVI-RONMENT EVALUATION (STEVE TOOL)
STEVE has been developed based on the air temperature prediction models. These prediction models were based onthe empirical data collected over a period of close to 3 years as part of the development of an assessment methodto evaluate the impact of estate development, which includesthe assessment method of existing greenery condition and greenery condition for a proposed master plan in anestate development .In the development of the empirical model, air temperaturedata that has been gathered in the previous studies werecombined with the most recent data, which includes estate-wide and canyon types of measurements. The measurement points cover various types of land uses, including residential,commercial, business park, education, industrial, park, openspace and sport facility.Daily minimum (
), average (
) and maximum(
) temperature of each point of measurements werecalculated as the dependent variable of the air temperature prediction model. The independent variables for the modelscan be categorized into:Climate predictors:
daily minimum (Ref Tmin), average(Ref Tavg) and maximum (Ref Tmax) temperature
at reference point;
average of daily solar radiation
(SOLAR). For theSOLAR predictor, average of daily solar radiation total(SOLARtotal) was used in Tavg models, while average of solar radiation maximum of the day (SOLARmax) was usedin the Tmax model. SOLAR predictor is not applicable forTmin model. These data are obtained from the weatherstation.Urban morphology predictors:
percentage of pavement area over R 50m surface
average height tobuilding area ratio
total wall surface area
Nyuk Hien Wong
is Associate Professor in the Department of Building, National University of Singapore. His area of expertise and research interestsincludes urban heat island, urban greenery, thermal comfort in the tropicsand building energy simulation. He is the principal investigator of a numberof research projects in collaboration with the various government agenciesin Singapore. Prof. Wong has published more than 150 international referred journal and conference papers and was the co-authors of 3 books on rooftopand urban greenery and has been invited to deliver keynote papers andresearch findings in various conferences and symposiums. He has also beeninvited to serve in the various advisory committees both locally andinternationally.
Steve Kardinal Jusuf
has a Ph.D. degree in Building Science from theDepartment of Building, National University of Singapore. Currently he is a Research Fellow at Centre for Sustainable Asian Cities, NUS. His researchinterests include urban microclimate and urban climatic mapping withGeographical Information Systems. He has worked in a number of research projects with various Singapore government agencies, mainly on urbanclimatic mapping for sustainable urban development.
is Research Assistant at Centre for Sustainable AsianCities, NUS. She is architect in practice and holds master degree in buildingscience from Department of Building, NUS. Her research interests includeurban heat island, urban climatic mapping, outdoor thermal comfort,sustainable building and urban development.
is a Master Graduate in Building Science at Department of Building, National University of Singapore. Topic of this paper embarksfrom her Independent Study research, with Dr. Wong Nyuk Hien as hersupervisor, which highlights the building morphology and density effect onurban temperature. Currently, she is working at green building consultant.
is currently a PhD candidate at Department of Building, National University of Singapore, under Prof. Wong Nyuk Hien supervision.The focus of his research is mostly on urban climatic mapping and temperaturemodel for urban morphology in Singapore. He was a research assistant inCentre of Sustainable Asian Cities (CSAC) at NUS in 2009, and he has donehis Master Degree in Building Science from the same university in 2008.
Urban Heat Island profile in Singapore (Source: Jusuf et al., 2007)