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raid level

raid level

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Published by: hungzitan on Nov 07, 2008
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RAID is an acronym for Redundant Array of Inexpensive (or Independent) Disks.A RAID array is a collection of drives which collectively act as a single storagesystem, which can tolerate the failure of a drive without losing data, and whichcan operate independently of each other.Various RAID ClassesRAID 0 (Striping)RAID 1 (Mirroring)RAID 0+1RAID 2 (ECC)RAID 3RAID 4RAID 5RAID 6RAID 7 (Proprietary)RAID 10RAID 1ERAID 50 (same as RAID 05)RAID 53
The "RAID" acronym first appeared in 1988 in the earliest of the Berkeley Papers written byPatterson, Gibson & Katz of the University of California at Berkeley. The RAID AdvisoryBoard has since substituted "Independent" for "Inexpensive". A series of papers written bythe original three authors and others defined and categorized several data protection andmapping models for disk arrays. Some of the models described in these papers, such asmirroring, were known at the time, others were new. The word levels used by the authorsto differentiate the models from each other may suggest that a higher numbered RAIDmodel is uniformly superior to a lower numbered one. This is not the case.
RAID 0 (Striping)
RAID 0: Striped Disk Array without Fault ToleranceRAID Level 0 requires a minimum of 2 drives to implement.RAID Level 0 is a performance oriented striped data mapping technique. Uniformly sizedblocks of storage are assigned in regular sequence to all of an array's disks. RAID Level 0provides high I/O performance at low inherent cost. (No additional disks are required). Thereliability of RAID Level 0, however is less than that of its member disks due to its lack of redundancy. Despite the name, RAID Level 0 is not actually RAID, unless it is combined withother technologies to provide data and functional redundancy, regeneration and rebuilding.Advantages: RAID 0 implements a striped disk array, the data is broken down into blocksand each block is written to a separate disk drive. I/O performance is greatly improved byspreading the I/O load across many channels and drives. Best performance is achievedwhen data is striped across multiple controllers with only one drive per controller. No paritycalculation overhead is involvedVery simple designEasy to implement.Disadvantages: Not a "True" RAID because it is NOT fault-tolerant. The failure of just onedrive will result in all data in an array being lost. Should never be used in mission criticalenvironments. Recommended Applications? Video Production and Editing ? Image Editing ?
Pre-Press Applications ? Any application requiring high bandwidth.
RAID 1 (Mirroring)
RAID 1: Mirroring and Duplexing. For Highest performance, the controller must be able toperform two concurrent separate Reads per mirrored pair or two duplicate Writes permirrored pair.RAID Level 1 requires a minimum of 2 drives to implement.RAID Level 1, also called mirroring, has been used longer than any other form of RAID. Itremains popular because of its simplicity and high level of reliability and availability.Mirrored arrays consist of two or more disks. Each disk in a mirrored array holds anidentical image of user data. A RAID Level 1 array may use parallel access for high transferrate when reading. More commonly, RAID Level 1 array members operate independentlyand improve performance for read-intensive applications, but at relatively high inherentcost. This is a good entry-level redundant system, since only two drives are required.Advantages: One Write or two Reads possible per mirrored pair. Twice the Read transactionrate of single disks. Same write transaction rate as single disks. 100% redundancy of datameans no rebuild is necessary in case of a disk failure, just a copy to the replacement disk.Transfer rate per block is equal to that of a single disk. Under certain circumstances, RAID 1can sustain multiple simultaneous drive failures. Simplest RAID storage subsystem design.Disadvantages: Highest disk overhead of all RAID types (100%) - inefficient. Typically theRAID function is done by system software, loading the CPU/Server and possibly degradingthroughput at high activity levels. Hardware implementation is strongly recommended. Maynot support hot swap of failed disk when implemented in "software". RecommendedApplications? Accounting ? Payroll ? Financial ? Any application requiring very highavailability.
RAID 0+1
RAID 0+1: High Data Transfer PerformanceRAID Level 0+1 requires a minimum of 4 drives to implement.RAID Level 0+1 is a striping and mirroring combination without parity. RAID 0+1 has fastdata access (like RAID 0), and single-drive fault tolerance (like RAID 1). RAID 0+1 stillrequires twice the number of disks (like RAID 1).Advantages: RAID 0+1 is implemented as a mirrored array whose segments are RAID 0arrays. RAID 0+1 has the same fault tolerance as RAID level 5. RAID 0+1 has the sameoverhead for fault-tolerance as mirroring alone. High I/O rates are achieved thanks tomultiple stripe segments. Excellent solution for sites that need high performance but arenot concerned with achieving maximum reliability.Disadvantages: RAID 0+1 is NOT to be confused with RAID 10. A single drive failure willcause the whole array to become, in essence, a RAID Level 0 array. Very expensive / Highoverhead. All drives must move in parallel to proper track lowering sustained performance.Very limited scalability at a very high inherent cost. Recommended Applications? Imagingapplications ? General fileserver.
RAID 2: Hamming Code ECC Each bit of data word is written to a data disk drive (4 in thisexample: 0 to 3). Each data word has its Hamming Code ECC word recorded on the ECC
disks. On Read, the ECC code verifies correct data or corrects single disk errors.RAID Level 2 is one of two inherently parallel mapping and protection techniques defined inthe Berkeley paper. It has not been widely deployed in industry largely because it requiresspecial disk features. Since disk production volumes determine cost, it is more economicalto use standard disks for RAID systems.Advantages: "On the fly" data error correction. Extremely high data transfer rates possible.The higher the data transfer rate required, the better the ratio of data disks to ECC disks.Relatively simple controller design compared to RAID levels 3,4 & 5.Disadvantages: Very high ratio of ECC disks to data disks with smaller word sizes -inefficient. Entry level cost very high - requires very high transfer rate requirement to justify. Transaction rate is equal to that of a single disk at best (with spindlesynchronization). No commercial implementations exist / not commercially viable.
RAID 3: Parallel transfer with Parity The data block is subdivided ("striped") and writtenon the data disks. Stripe parity is generated on Writes, recorded on the parity disk andchecked on Reads.RAID Level 3 requires a minimum of 3 drives to implement.RAID Level 3 adds redundant information in the form of parity to a parallel access stripedarray, permitting regeneration and rebuilding in the event of a disk failure. One stripe of parity protects corresponding strip's of data on the remaining disks. RAID Level 3 providesfor high transfer rate and high availability, at an inherently lower cost than mirroring. Itstransaction performance is poor, however, because all RAID Level 3 array member disksoperate in lockstep.RAID 3 utilizes a striped set of three or more disks with the parity of the strips (or chunks)comprising each stripe written to a disk. Note that parity is not required to be written to thesame disk. Furthermore, RAID 3 requires data to be distributed across all disks in the arrayin bit or byte-sized chunks. Assuming that a RAID 3 array has N drives, this ensures thatwhen data is read, the sum of the data-bandwidth of N - 1 drives is realized. The figurebelow illustrates an example of a RAID 3 array comprised of three disks. Disks A, B and Ccomprise the striped set with the strips on disk C dedicated to storing the parity for thestrips of the corresponding stripe. For instance, the strip on disk C marked as P(1A,1B)contains the parity for the strips 1A and 1B. Similarly the strip on disk C marked asP(2A,2B) contains the parity for the strips 2A and 2B.Advantages: Very high Read data transfer rate. Very high Write data transfer rate. Diskfailure has an insignificant impact on throughput. Low ratio of ECC (Parity) disks to datadisks means high efficiency. RAID 3 ensures that if one of the disks in the striped set (other

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