File Hierarchy System 2.3FHS
compliant file system in an OS is assumed to have UNIX like security features.
Criteria to distinguish Directories:
variable vs. Static
. Files that differ in either of these respects
located in different directories—makes it easy to store files with different usagecharacteristics on different filesystems. For example, the files in user home directories areshareable whereas device lock files are not. "Static" files include binaries, libraries,documentation files and other files that do not change without system administrator intervention.
Not all files are shareable, which is why there is local disk storage too. It is convenient if allthe files a system requires that are stored on a foreign host can be made available by
one or a few directories from the foreign host.
Earlier UNIX like filesystem hierarchies allowed both static and variable files in
/usr and /etc.
Static files can be stored on read-only storage for they don't change. So,
wascreated and variable files from
were moved to it; /usr could be
now.As technology allowed, variables files from
was moved to
The Root Filesystem
: the purpose of this filesystem is to put those files at one place which are enough to boot, restore, recover and/or repair the system.
a system, enough must be present on the root partition to mount other filesystems. This includes utilities, configuration, boot loader information, and other essential start-up data.
are designed such that they
may be located onother partitions or filesystems.
To enable recovery
and/or repair of a system, utilities needed by to diagnose andreconstruct a damaged system must be present on the root filesystem.
a system, those utilities needed to restore from system backups (on floppy,tape, etc.) must be present on the root filesystem.
The root filesystem isn’t always shareable between networked systems because of having files which are machine dependent eg kernel.
You may have the root filesystem on a large partition, there will be people with smaller partitions. You may face incompatibilities with other systems using root filesystems onsmaller partitions.
A small root filesystem is less prone to corruption as the result of a system crash.
Applications must never create or require special files or subdirectories in the root directory.Other locations in the FHS hierarchy provide more than enough flexibility for any package.
If corresponding subsystem is installed,
home, root, lib<qual>
directories either must be in /or their symbolic links must.
/bin contains commands—used by both the system administrator and by users—are required