FPI values over the PDF. This method has been used with RANS modeling of turbulence[6],[7]and with LES and
DNS[8].
In this work, a bluffbody stabilized methaneair ﬂame[9]has been simulated using the above mentioned presumed
PDF and a simple turbulence closure model (k
ε
)[10]. The conical bluffbody creates a stabilizing recirculation zone
localised near the stagnation region downstream of the bluffbody. Radial proﬁles obtained from simulations fordifferent variables (temperature, velocity) and mass fractions of chemical species in this region have been comparedto experimental observations.
2. Theory
Turbulent combustion modeling aims to provide closures for the unclosed terms arising from Reynolds averaging of the balance equations. These terms have been described brieﬂy as follows:1. Terms involving molecular diffusion are often approximated to zero as they are negligible compared to turbulenttransport. Also, the last three terms in the energy equation are usually neglected in RANS models.2. The Reynolds stress tensor (
u
′′
i
u
′′
j
) is closed using turbuelence models. This may involve single or twoequationmodels that approximate the tensor or transport equations, as in the RST Models. In this paper, the k
ε
turbulence model has been used to approximate this term. In this model two transport equations are solved for
k
and
ε
, which are used to compute the turbulent viscosity
ν
t
. The Reynolds stress tensor is then calculatedfrom the Boussinesq assumption[10]which relates the Reynolds stress tensor to the velocity gradients via the
turbulent viscosity by introducing an assumption for the diffusion term in the averaged NavierStokes equationfor momentum.
ν
t
=
C
µ
k
1
/
2
l
=
C
µ
k
2
ε
u
′′
i
u
′′
j
=
ν
t
∂
u
i
∂x
j
(1)3. Turbulent convection transport terms (
u
′′
j
Y
′′
k
and
u
′′
j
h
′′
) are closed using gradient transport equations:
¯
ρ
u
′′
j
Y
′′
k
=
−
µ
t
Sc
k
∂
¯
Y
k
∂x
j
where the Scmidt number,
Sc
k
=
µρD
k
(2)4. The mean chemical source term (
˙
ω
k
) is closed using different techniques; algebraic models, ﬂamelet approach,CMC and transported PDF method. In this paper, a ﬂamelet model has been adopted.In order to close the mean chemical source term (
˙
ω
) a statistical approach has been adopted. In turbulent premixedcombustion, ﬂame ﬂuctuations in temperature, and species mass fractions are easily compared to a progress variablethat quantiﬁes the extent to which the combustion process has completed. A species based progress variable is deﬁnedin such a way that c = 0 in fresh gases, and c = 1 in burnt gases. The progress variable is deﬁned as:
c
=
Y
p
Y
p,eq
(3)where
Y
p
is the mass fraction of one or more product species  CO
2
is used in the current work  and
Y
p,eq
is the valueof mass fraction of that product after complete combustion, i.e. in burnt gases. Further steps in the numerical modelingof the problem using the PDF function require knowledge of the PDF and its functional form by presuming a shape forthe PDF. Since the probability to ﬁnd all possible values of c is equal to unity, the integral of the PDF over the entirespace must balance unity. Also, the zeroth, ﬁrst and second moments of
c
must satisfy the following relations:
10
P
(
c
∗
)
dc
∗
= 1
1
c
c
∗
P
(
c
∗
)
dc
∗
=
c
1
c
(
c
∗
−
c
)
2
P
(
c
∗
)
dc
∗
=
c
′′
2
(4)where
P
(
c
∗
)
is the Favre PDF:
P
(
c
∗
) =
ρ

c
∗
¯
P
(
c
∗
)
/
¯
ρ
. Using the above three relations and knowing the mean andvariance of reaction progress variable, a the presumed shape for the PDF can be formed. A ﬂame prolonged ILDM(FPI) chemistry table is generated by solving transport equations for conservation of momentum and energy in a steady