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¿"BANCO MALO"? ... DEPENDE - "BAD BANK"? ... IT DEPENDS (Spanish) - "BANKU TXARRA"? ... IKUSI BEHAR (Espainieraz)

¿"BANCO MALO"? ... DEPENDE - "BAD BANK"? ... IT DEPENDS (Spanish) - "BANKU TXARRA"? ... IKUSI BEHAR (Espainieraz)

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Published by EKAI Center

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: EKAI Center on Jan 13, 2012
Copyright:Public Domain

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06/21/2015

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 N| n ]ozgahm Vnvkz# ap `ok|h°p zkicklp nhq ah|pap{paohnc vo|apaoh oz ovahaoh hkapbkz oi KGNA Lkhpkz#hoz oi ap| |voh|oz| oz |{vvozpahm khpapak|KGNA Lkhpkz |kkg| po `o j{|ahk|| }apb loevnhak| oz moykzhekhp| loykzk` ah ap| zkvozp|( Zkn`kz| |bo{c` jk n}nzkpbnp }k enq bnyk n lohicalp oi ahpkzk|p pbnp lo{c` niiklp pbk ojdklpayapq oi pba| zkvozp( Ahyk|poz| |bo{c` loh|a`kzpba| zkvozp n| ohcq n |ahmck inlpoz ah engahm pbkaz ahyk|pekhp `kla|aoh(
 
MNZNAN AHHOYNPAOH LKHPKZ# MOAZ[ >#N: EOH@ZNMOH(PKC4 10<:;6>60 YAPOZAN%MN\PKAT 9<190>0;=CKGKAPAO 9=;=6>=2; @[ZNHMO 9222>1;:6 K%ENAC4 ahioFkgnalkhpkz(k{  inlkjoog(loe/KGNALkhpzk |lzaj`(loe/KGNALkhpkz
 
]ozgahm Vnvkz
 
:6>>go [zpnzzacng ><
 
¿– 
JNHLO ENCO
―? … @KVKH@K 
 
– 
JN@ JNHG 
? … AP @KVKH@\(
 
–JNHG[ PRNZZN―? 
 
… AG[\A JKBNZ
 
― 
"N jn` jnhg! a| n }nq po lcknh {v pbk zknccq jn` jnhg|
ncc pbk vzaynpk jnhg| pbnp bnyk vzojcke n||kp| "nh`!pngk pbo|k vzojcke n||kp| oii pbkaz joog|( Pbahg oi ap n| pbk jammk|p iahnhlanc |nhapnpaoh vzodklp kykz* 
\aeoh Dobh|ohEn||nlb{|kpp| Ah|pap{pk oi Pklbhocomq-| \conh \lbooc oi Enhnmkekhp
 
>(
 
Kc pázeaho –jnhlo enco― yakhk |akh`o {|n`o
loh {hn lakzpn lohi{|aüh# n{h~{k kh po`o ln|o`k|lzajk n {hn khpa`n` ~{k n|{ek cn pap{cnza`n`
`k nlpayo| –püralo|― vzolk`khpk| `k opzn|
khpa`n`k| iahnhlakzn|# hozencekhpk kh kc enzlo`k vocåpaln| nhpa%lza|a|(
:(
 
Kc ojdkpayo –pálhalo― `k cn lzknlaüh `k {h
jnhlo enco k| lcnzo( \k pznpn `k inlacapnz cnzknlpaynlaüh `k cn nlpaya`n` lzk`apalan voz vnzpk`k cn| khpa`n`k| iahnhlakzn|( Cn lohi{|aüh kh co|ea|eo| jncnhlk| `k co| nlpayo| |nho| q co|
nlpayo| –püralo|― nl{e{cn`o| `{znhpk cn in|k
krvnh|ayn `aial{cpn |kzanekhpk ~{k k|pn|khpa`n`k| |k npzkynh n `k|nzzoccnz lohhozenca`n` |{ nlpaya`n` lzk`apalan q#loh|kl{khpkekhpk# `aial{cpn pnejaáh cnzknlpaynlaüh klohüealn( Cn krpznllaüh `k co|nlpayo| püralo| `kc jncnhlk `k k|pn| khpa`n`k|vzkpkh`k pkhkz kc kiklpo vo|apayo vzkla|nekhpk`k inlacapnz cn hozencatnlaüh `k cn nlpaya`n`lzk`apalan `k cn| khpa`n`k| kh cn| ~{k co| nlpayo||nho| |k enhpakhkh(
<(
Cn lohi{|aüh nczk`k`oz `kc lohlkvpo `k
–jnhlo| enco|―
vzolk`k vzkla|nekhpk `k cn|
 
 
N| n ]ozgahm Vnvkz# ap `ok|h°p zkicklp nhq ah|pap{paohnc vo|apaoh oz ovahaoh hkapbkz oi KGNA Lkhpkz#hoz oi ap| |voh|oz| oz |{vvozpahm khpapak|KGNA Lkhpkz |kkg| po `o j{|ahk|| }apb loevnhak| oz moykzhekhp| loykzk` ah ap| zkvozp|( Zkn`kz| |bo{c` jk n}nzk pbnp }kenq bnyk n lohicalp oi ahpkzk|p pbnp lo{c` niiklp pbk ojdklpayapq oi pba| zkvozp( Ahyk|poz| |bo{c` loh|a`kz pba| zkvozp n| ohcq n|ahmck inlpoz ah engahm pbkaz ahyk|pekhp `kla|aoh(
 
MNZNAN AHHOYNPAOH LKHPKZ# MOAZ[ >#N: EOH@ZNMOH(PKC4 10<:;6>60 YAPOZAN%MN\PKAT 9<190>0;=CKGKAPAO 9=;=6>=2; @[ZNHMO 9222>1;:6 K%ENAC4 ahioFkgnalkhpkz(k{  inlkjoog(loe/KGNALkhpzk |lzaj`(loe/KGNALkhpkz
 
¿JNHLO ENCO? …… @KVKH@K
 `aykz|n| ahpkzvzkpnlaohk| |ojzk |{ |khpa`o ôcpaeoq |{| ykz`n`kzn| iahnca`n`k| klohüealn| q|olanck|( Q á|pk k| vzkla|nekhpk kc ozamkh `k |{|amhaialnlaüh vocåpaln( Voz~{k kc ea|eo lohlkvpopálhalo# kh i{hlaüh `k |{ lohlzklaüh# v{k`kzk|voh`kz n yoc{hpn`k| vocåpaln| zn`alncekhpk`a|pahpn|(
0(
Loeo k| |nja`o# kc lohlkvpo `k |kvnznlaüh
 “na|cneakhpo / –zahm
%
ikhlahm―
% `k cn| nlpaya`n`k|iahnhlakzn| ekzklk`ozn| `k vzopkllaüh bn |a`o`kikh`a`o voz KGNA Lkhpkz `k|`k :66= loeo {hah|pz{ekhpo hklk|nzao vnzn bnlkz izkhpk n {hnlza|a| iahnhlakzn `k cn `aekh|aüh `k cn ~{kkhizkhpneo| `k|`k khpohlk|( Vkzo# voz|{v{k|po# kc lüeo |k `kcaeapnh k|pn| nlpaya`n`k|q# voz |{v{k|po# loh ~{á iah# |oh n|vklpo|k|khlanck| vnzn lncaialnz `k {hn { opzn iozenk|pn| vocåpaln| vôjcaln|(
;(
Eklnha|eo| k|khlancekhpk `aikzkhpk| nczk|vklpo v{k`kh |kz cn |kvnznlaüh kh `a|pahpn|khpa`n`k|4n! @k nlpayo| püralo| q |nho|# pnc loeobnjap{ncekhpk |k vzkpkh`k ek`anhpk cn
loh|pap{laüh `k {h –jnhlo enco―(
 j! @k nlpayo| niklpo| n nlpaya`n`k| `kjnhln loekzlanc q `k jnhln `k ahykz|aüh#|am{akh`o cn vocåpaln `k zahm%ikhlahmnvzojn`n nbozn voz kc mojakzholoh|kzyn`oz jzapîhalo q `kikh`a`n voz KGNALkhpkz `k|`k :66=(
9(
N{h~{k nejn| vocåpaln| v{k`kh iîlacekhpklohi{h`az|k# |{ ojdkpayo k| k|khlancekhpk
`a|pahpo( Eakhpzn| kc –jnhlo enco― vzkpkh`k
cajkznz n cn| khpa`n`k| iahnhlakzn| `k co| nlpayo|püralo| loh kc iah `k inlacapnz cn mk|paüh `k cn|vzaekzn|# cn `aikzkhlanlaüh `k nlpaya`n`k| pakhk{hn `ojck iahnca`n`4n! voz {h cn`o# inlacapnz cn lnhncatnlaüh `kc|ovozpk vôjcalo krlc{|aynekhpk bnlan cn|nlpaya`n`k| `k jnhln loekzlanc# pnhpo kh kcenzlo `k cn lza|a| loeo bnlan kc i{p{zo#j! n|km{znz ~{k kc enzlo `k nlpaya`n`k|vzopkma`n| voz cn zkm{cnlaüh iahnhlakzn# kcnllk|o vzayackman`o n cn iahnhlanlaühvôjcaln# kpl( |k `kiahkh `k iozenzk|pzalpayn# `kdnh`o i{kzn `k `albnvzopkllaüh cn| nlpaya`n`k| k|vkl{cnpayn| o`k jnhln `k ahykz|aohk| ho zkcnlaohn`n|loh kc ahpkzá| vôjcalo npzaj{a`o n cn jnhlnloekzlanc(
=(
N kiklpo| `k cn| vocåpaln| n lozpo vcnto#cümalnekhpk# {hn `aikzkhlan k|khlanc khpzk co ~{kbnjap{ncekhpk |k khpakh`k loeo vocåpaln `k
loh|pap{laüh `k {h –jnhlo enco― q kc –zahmikhlahm―
~{k KGNA Lkhpkz `kiakh`k# zn`aln kh kc`k|paho `kc vnpzaeohao |kvnzn`o `k cn nlpaya`n``k ozamkh(
2(
 
Kh kc ln|o `kc –zahm
%
ikhlahm― k|pî lcnzo ~{k kc
ojdkpayo k| n|km{znz ~{k cn| nlpaya`n`k| ~{k
~{k`nh i{kzn `kc –lazl{co `k vzopkllaüh― |knh
vzayn`n| `k l{nc~{akz pavo `k vzopkllaüh vôjcalnq# voz co pnhpo# |{| nllaoha|pn| n|{enh cn|váz`a`n| mkhkzn`n| voz cn| ea|en|(
1(
Kh kc ln|o `kc jnhlo enco# |ah kejnzmo#vnzklk lcnzo ~{k |k vnzpk `kc |{v{k|po `k ~{k#`k {hn iozen { opzn# k|pk jnhlo |k lzkn jndo cnpap{cnza`n` k|pnpnc q# `k k|pn iozen# k| kc K|pn`o~{akh |k bnlk zk|voh|njck `k co| zk|{cpn`o|
 
 
N| n ]ozgahm Vnvkz# ap `ok|h°p zkicklp nhq ah|pap{paohnc vo|apaoh oz ovahaoh hkapbkz oi KGNA Lkhpkz#hoz oi ap| |voh|oz| oz |{vvozpahm khpapak|KGNA Lkhpkz |kkg| po `o j{|ahk|| }apb loevnhak| oz moykzhekhp| loykzk` ah ap| zkvozp|( Zkn`kz| |bo{c` jk n}nzk pbnp }kenq bnyk n lohicalp oi ahpkzk|p pbnp lo{c` niiklp pbk ojdklpayapq oi pba| zkvozp( Ahyk|poz| |bo{c` loh|a`kz pba| zkvozp n| ohcq n|ahmck inlpoz ah engahm pbkaz ahyk|pekhp `kla|aoh(
 
MNZNAN AHHOYNPAOH LKHPKZ# MOAZ[ >#N: EOH@ZNMOH(PKC4 10<:;6>60 YAPOZAN%MN\PKAT 9<190>0;=CKGKAPAO 9=;=6>=2; @[ZNHMO 9222>1;:6 K%ENAC4 ahioFkgnalkhpkz(k{  inlkjoog(loe/KGNALkhpzk |lzaj`(loe/KGNALkhpkz
 
¿JNHLO ENCO? …… @KVKH@K
 hkmnpayo| `kzayn`o| `k cn zkncatnlaüh `k co|nlpayo| püralo| {jaln`o| kh k|pk jnhlo
>
(
>6(
Kh |åh
pk|a|# kc lohlkvpo `k –jnhlo enco― “
pncloeo |k yakhk khpkh`akh`o bnjap{ncekhpk% ho k||aho {h ah|pz{ekhpo `k zk|lnpk en|ayo `kc|a|pken jnhlnzao voz vnzpk `kc K|pn`o( @k ncm{hniozen# k|po v{k`k |kz krnlpnekhpk co lohpznzao nco| ojdkpayo| fvocåpalo| vcnhpkn`o| voz cn|
vocåpaln| `k –zahm
%
ikhlahm―(
 
>>(
Voz |{v{k|po# kc n|vklpo vo|apayo `k cn v{k|pn
kh enzlbn `k co| –
jnhlo| enco|
― k| inlacapnz kc
zkpozho `kc i{hlaohneakhpo `kc ic{do `kc lzá`apokh kc |a|pken jnhlnzao(
>:(
[hn vzaekzn l{k|paüh lcnyk vnzn cnahpkzvzkpnlaüh vocåpaln `k cn k|pznpkman `k co|
–jnhlo| enco|―
|oh co| lzapkzao| |km{a`o| kh cnyncoznlaüh `k co| nlpayo| pzn|cn`n`o| n k|po|jnhlo|( Hozencekhpk# k|pk pzn|cn`o |k zkncatnvoz {h vzklao ahikzaoz n |{ yncoz lohpnjck# vkzo|{|pnhlancekhpk |{vkzaoz n |{ ykz`n`kzo yncozn{h~{k# voz zntohk| `k aenmkh vocåpaln# k|po ho|akevzk |k krvcalapk( Ho oj|pnhpk# |a cn| khpa`n`k|jnhlnzan| k|pîh `a|v{k|pn| n lk`kz en|aynekhpk|{| enco| nlpayo| kcco k| vzkla|nekhpk voz~{k kcvzklao `k lk|aüh k| |{|pnhlancekhpk ahikzaoz nczknc(
><(
Á|pn k| vzkla|nekhpk# cn enhaik|pnlaüh `kclnzîlpkz lcnznekhpk vocåpalo `k k|pk vzolk|o# ~{k
>
Voz~{k# voz |{v{k|po# ho `kjk bnjkz hahm{hn `{`n `k~{k k|pn| váz`a`n| |k ynh n vzo`{laz hklk|nzanekhpk( Á|pnq ho opzn k| cn zntüh `k ~{k co| jnhlo| pap{cnzk| `k k|po|
nlpayo| nlkvpkh |{ lk|aüh nc –jnhlo enco― o# n cn ahykz|n#
`k ~{k |üco kc K|pn`o k|pá `a|v{k|po n bnlkz|k loh k|o|nlpayo| n {h vzklao nlkvpnjck vnzn cn| khpa`n`k| lk`khpk|(
loh|a|pk# ha eî| ha ekho|# ~{k kh {h ahekh|opzn|yn|k `k zkl{z|o| `k|`k kc K|pn`o nc |klpozjnhlnzao(
>0(
Ho oj|pnhpk# vnzn cn ahpkzvzkpnlaüh `kclohd{hpo `k cn| vocåpaln| |km{a`n| nc zk|vklpo k|aevzk|lah`ajck pkhkz kh l{khpn kc vzolk|ovzkyanekhpk |km{a`o kh cn ahpkzykhlaüh ozklohykz|aüh `kc |klpoz jnhlnzao(
>;(
Kh kc ln|o `k co| `o| jnhlo| enco|loh|pap{a`o| kh \{klan n vzahlavao| `k cn `áln`n`k co| hoykhpn# kc vzolk|o `k loh|pap{laüh `k co|ea|eo| |k `k|nzzoccü loh vo|pkzaoza`n` n {hvzolk|o `k ahpkzykhlaüh `k co| mznh`k| jnhlo|kh `aial{cpn`k|# yncoznlaüh zknc `k co| nlpayo| kaev{pnlaüh `k cn| váz`a`n| `k yncoz k|paen`n| nco| nllaoha|pn|( Kc ~{k k|po| vzolk|o| `kaev{pnlaüh n co| nllaoha|pn| `k cn| váz`a`n|mkhkzn`n| |k vzo`{tlnh o ho v{k`k |kz k|khlancvnzn ~{k co| kiklpo| ôcpaeo| `k cn| vocåpaln| `k
v{k|pn kh enzlbn `k –jnhlo| enco|― zkvkzl{pnh
åhpkmznekhpk |ojzk co| la{`n`nho| n pznyá| `kco| vzk|{v{k|po| vôjcalo| o jakh zkvkzl{pnhjî|alnekhpk |ojzk co| nlp{nck| nllaoha|pn| `k co|mznh`k| jnhlo|([h vzolk|o |aeacnz |k |am{aü kh Iahcnh`an kh cn
loh|pap{laüh `kc –jnhlo enco― –
OBQ Nz|khnc
loeo loh|kl{khlan `k cn hnlaohncatnlaüh `kynzao| jnhlo| incca`o|(
>9(
Cn krvkzakhlan bn `keo|pzn`o pnejaáh ~{k cn
mk|paüh `k co| –jnhlo| enco|― k| loevckdn q ~{k#
kh n{|khlan `k {hn `acamkhpk mk|paüh `k co|ea|eo|# co| zak|mo| vnzn co| vzk|{v{k|po|vôjcalo| v{k`kh nclnhtnz `aekh|aohk|ahn|{eajck|( Vkzo pnejaáh k| lakzpo ~{k kiklpo|`k|n|pzo|o| |aeacnzk| v{k`kh vzo`{laz|k voz {hn

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