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Bulk Carrier Practice

Bulk Carrier Practice

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Published by Nezupher Shammoon

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Published by: Nezupher Shammoon on Jan 13, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Evolution from tramp ships, categories of bulk carrier, the layout of a bulk carrier
with particular reference to its distinctive features.
Charterparties, time charters, voyage charters, sub-chartering, voyage estimates,
compliance with the charter party, owners' and charterers' voyage orders,
consultation with principals, master's responsibilities including interruptions to the
voyage, keeping full records, surveys, and tendering of notice of readiness.
The records which should be maintained aboard bulk carriers because of theirtrade, the reference books which ought to be available for routine inspection, and the
drawings required by deck officers.
Development, hatchcover types, general description and design, surveys, testing forwatertightness, maintenance procedures, some defects, emergency opening &
closing, hatch leakage—first aid.
General considerations, disposal of cargo residues, preparation for cleaning,
washing, clearing blocked bilge suctions, drying, sweeping, preparation of bilgesand testing of fittings, hold inspections, time required for hold preparation, final
preparations, hold coatings, ballast holds.
Ventilation, airpipes, hold bilges, soundings, hold temperature systems, deck &
hold lighting, fire smothering systems, hatch coaming drains, deck machinery,derricks & cranes.
Basic pattern of ballast management, relevant regulations, ship's ballast layout,
quantity of ballast required, ballasting whilst discharging, ballast management on
passage, restrictions on deballasting, deballasting, achieving good results,
maintenance of ballast tanks, removal of sediment and scale, patching of leaks,maintenance of coatings in tanks, inspections, closing of tanks.
Shear forces and bending moments, ship movement in a seaway, springing, hull
stress monitoring, stability, free surface effect, angle of loll, flooding, sloshing,
hogging & sagging, squat, effects of list and heel, change of trim due to change of density.
Orders for loading, general approach, maximum lift, limiting point in voyage,
factors which govern the distribution of cargo, the loading/deballasting
programme, two berth and two port loading and discharge, block loading, two andmulti-loader operations, the trimming pours, loading the optimum amount of 
cargo, the discharging programme, when cargo cannot be carried safely.
Loading computers, the use of loading manuals, their deficiencies and contents,
displacement, stability and longitudinal strength calculations, choice of methods,
practical considerations, grain stability, timber stability.
The final authority for decisions, the need for exchange of information,
maximum safe draft, tidal range and sailing draft, air draft, cargo handling
equipment and rate, positions of structures on quay, mooring requirements,
systems of fendering, systems of access, restrictions on deballasting,
communication with berth operators, tonnage 'on the belt', hours of work, effects of weather, methods of trimming, loading, and discharging, ship's information for
the berth operator including typical mooring arrangements, methods of 
information exchange, storing and handling of cargoes ashore.
The importance of the loading period, arrival in the berth, preloading surveys,acceptability of the offered cargo, duties of the ship's officers, the
loading/deballasting programme, monitoring of the loading and deballasting,
supervision of the work of the crew, liaison with loading staff, damage to ship orcargo, maintenance of full records, chief mate's role as troubleshooter, master's
role, shifting ship by warping, safe procedures for working cargo.
Methods of weighing bulk cargoes ashore, draft survey procedures, reasons for
unexpected results.
Hold inspection certificates, mate's receipts, bills oflading and authorisations to
sign them, phytosanitary certificates, certificates of compliance, UN approval,
origin, declarations by shipper, certificates of transportable moisture limit,moisture content, master's response sheet, certificates of IMO classification,lashing, readiness to load, fitness to proceed to sea, loading, fumigation, weight and
quality, stowage plans, cargo manifests, dangerous cargo manifests, material safety
data, hatch sealing certificates, statements of fact, letters of protest, empty hold
certificates, trimming certificates and stevedores' time sheets, clean ballastdischarge permits and paint compliance certificates.
Departure from the loading port, choice of route, cargo ventilation, soundings,
acidity of bilges, cargo temperatures, sampling of air in holds, checking and
tightening of cargo lashings daily, inspections in fair and rough weather, conduct of the voyage in rough weather, reporting, arriving at the discharging port.
Shipboard organisation during discharge, routine procedures, on first arrival,
liaison with the discharging staff, the discharging/ballasting programme,ballasting, discharge by continuous unloading, grab, Cavaletto, vacuvator or
ship's gear, care for cargo, the search for and repair of stevedores' damage, crew
General remarks, departure from the discharging port, choice of route, routinetasks, conduct of the voyage in rough weather, reporting, before arrival at the
loading port, partial deballasting before berthing.
Operational characteristics of self unloaders, mini-bulkers, forest product ships,
log carriers, retractable tweendeck vessels, vessels with Munck cranes and
combination carriers.
Grain, coal, iron ore, steel, forest products.
Bulk cargo separations, taking the ground in the berth, general and breakbulk cargoes, trading to cold regions.
Responsibility for safety, permit to work system, entering enclosed spaces, use of 
pesticides, access between ship and shore, hazards from working cargo.
Atmospheric test equipment, hydrometers, sea water sampling equipment,whirling psychrometers, mucking winches, mobile cranes, cherrypickers,
scaffolding, paint sprayers, portable sump pumps, high pressure washing
machines, hold inspection systems, big area descalers, sand blasting machines,needle guns, pneumatic grease guns.
Planned maintenance systems, the planning of maintenance, management of 
spare parts, greasing and oiling, painting, maintenance of derricks, cranes and
grabs, ship's fixtures and fittings.

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