face
I am very grateful to Professor O. O. Tietjeos for furnishing me withoriginal prints
of
many
of
the
fto.w
photographs. .The original source
of
the
photographs for the plates
a
and
9
is theNational Physical Laboratory,
Engl~nd,
and
I
am gready obJiged
to
itsDirector for permission to reproduce the photographs which
are
Crowncopyright.
The
original photographs for plates 3,
4,
6a, and 7 are allfrom prewar Germanpubiication$, and
J
wish to
r~ord
my indebtedness
to
their respective sources. Plates
3
and
4
are after
F.
Homann,
Forschrmg
auf
dem Gebiete des Ingenieurwesens,
7 (1936).
Plate
68
is
after
L.
Prandtl,
Handbucli
cler
Experimentalphysik,
4,
Part
} (Leipzig.
J931).
Plate
7
is
after Piandtl,
The
Physics
of
Solids
and
Fluids
(London,
1~30)
The typing was capably handled by' Mrs. Katherine Bradley, Miss GailLemmond,
and
Mrs.' Elaine Morris.
My
sincere thanks
to
them,Finally
I
wish to express my appreciation to
John
Wiley
and Sons forthe understanding, patience, and encouragement they have extended meover the years.
Stanford,
Caltf0miD
August
1966
Krishnamurty Karamcheti
Contents
1.
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . • .
..

......
.
,
..
1.1
Fluid as a Continuous Medium . . . . . . . . • • • . •
1.2
Properties
of
a
Fluid
at
Rest:
Thermodynamic properties;
Compressibility.; Incompressible fluid; : Heat conduction andthe coefficient
of
thermal conductivity
....••..••.
1.3
Properties
of
a Fluid in Motion: Friction
or
viscosity;
Coefficient
of
viscosity; Compressibility; Heat transfer.
1.4
Laminar and turbulent motioos . . . .
..
. . . . . • .
1.5
Some Relevant Parameters: Relative magnitude
of
the foroes,Froude number, ReynOlds number, and
M~h
number;Par.ameters characterizing compressibility; PrandtJ number;Parameters
on
which force and heat transfer depend
..•.
1.6 Range
of
Some Parameters
.....
:
....•
1.1
Conditiong for Neglecting Compressibility' Effects;
Case
of
liquids; Case of
gases.
•.
.
.,
. .
.',
. . . • • .
1.8
Conditions for
~eglecting
Gravity
EffeCts
. • • . . " . .
1.9
Nature
of
the Problem when Compressibility Effects areNegligible. . . . . . . .
..
. . . . . . . . . • . . .1.10 Variation
of
Fl(>w
Patterns with Reynolds
Num~;
Flow pastbluff bodies; Flow past stteamlined bodies . . . . . .
".
1.11
Variation
of
Flow Pattern with Mach number . . . . . . .
J.l2
Effects
of
Viscosity
at
High Reynolds Numbers:,
The
Boundarylayer: Boundary layer concept; Some characteristiCs
of
thelami.nar boundary layer; Turbulent boundary layer; separauon; Wakes . . .
...
............
..
1.13
Consequences
of
the BoundaryLayer Concept
..
1.14
Ideal Fluid Theory
........
.........
.
1
2
2
4
10
13
,23
23
25
25
26
3S
2.
ELEMENTS
OF
VEcrOR
ALGEBRA AND
<;:ALCULUS56
2.1
, Representation
of
a
Vector.
2.2 Addition and Subtraction . .
2.3
Definition
of
a Vector . . .2.4 Multiplication
by
a Number .
2.S
Unit Vector
..
. . . . . .2.6 Zero Vector
.......
.2.7 ScalarProduct
of
Two Vectors
ix
"
.'
57
S8
6060
616161