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Aerodynamics by Karamchetti

Aerodynamics by Karamchetti

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Published by: sindhujangam on Jan 14, 2012
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Principles
of
Ideal-Fluid
Aerodynamics
Krishnamurty Karamcheti
Professor
of
Aeronautics and AstronauticsStanford University
 
Preface
The aim
of
this
book
is·
to
explain the basic principles
and
analyticaJmethods underlying the theory
of
the
motion
of
an
ideal fluid
(an
inviscidincompressjble fluid)
and
the role
of
he
theory
in describing
and
predictingthe flows associated with the
motion'
of
certain bodies
of
aerodynamic:interest
suc:h
as
wHigs
and
bodies
of
revolution. I have
attempted
to
describe ideal-fluid aerodynamics,
although
restricted
to
certain problems,.as a
branch
of
theoretical physics. .
The
subject is' developed from basic: principles
showing
clearly thecomplementary features
of
physical understanding
and
the mathematicalhandling
of
the
theory
.
The
intention is
to
show
the
role
of
physicalunderstanding in mathematical formulation, .to
~ring
out
the
motivationfor the mathematical language and, methods employed
and
the
necessity
for
a!,plying a
certain,amount
of
mathematical rigor in arriving
at
physicallyappealing solutions.
Thebook
is written
to
serVe
as a
sel~-contained
text
at
the
senior under
.
graduate
or
first-year graduate level.
The
idea is
not
to
give inadequatelyexplained solutions
to
many special problems,
but
rather
to
present,
for~
few selected practical problems, a unified
treatment
leading from
ba.ic
principles
to
practically meaningful results. A large
part
of
the
book
dealswith
general
concepts
and
mathematical methods, always related, however,
to
the solution
of
problems.
In
this way I
hope
that
the
book
will perform
the
valuable function
of
teaching subject
matter
related
to
a broadermethodology
that
will lead logically
to
more advanced topics
and
methodsin fluid mech.anics; it should be
of
nterest
to
students in various disciplines,such as applied mathematics, physics,
and
engineering.This
book
has grown
out
of
lectures
on
aerodynamic theory which Ihave offered for the last decade
and
which have been received withconsiderable enthusia>m.
It
is because
of
the
students'
encouragement
that
I venture
to
publish thnm.I
am
greatly indebted
to
Professor
Irmgard Fliigge Lotz for reviewingthe manuscript
and
fOr
many valuable suggestions
and
discussions.
My
special
thanks
are
due to Dr.
Maurice
L.
Rasmus~n
who
read the manu·script
and
offered valuable critic'sm. Many students have helped
me
enthusiasticaUy with the preparation
of
the
book,
and
my deep appreciationgoes
to
all
of
them.
ali
 
face
I am very grateful to Professor O. O. Tietjeos for furnishing me withoriginal prints
of
many
of
the
fto.w
photographs. .The original source
of
the-
photographs for the plates
a
and
9
is theNational Physical Laboratory,
Engl~nd,
and
I
am gready obJiged
to
itsDirector for permission to reproduce the photographs which
are
Crowncopyright.
The
original photographs for plates 3,
4,
6a, and 7 are allfrom prewar Germanpubiication$, and
J
wish to
r~ord
my indebtedness
to
their respective sources. Plates
3
and
4
are after
F.
Homann,
Forschrmg
auf
dem Gebiete des Ingenieurwesens,
7 (1936).
Plate
68
is
after
L.
Prandtl,
Handbucli
cler
Experimentalphysik,
4,
Part
} (Leipzig.
J931).
Plate
7
is
after Piandtl,
The
Physics
of
Solids
and
Fluids
(London,
1~30)
The typing was capably handled by' Mrs. Katherine Bradley, Miss GailLemmond,
and
Mrs.' Elaine Morris.
My
sincere thanks
to
them,Finally
I
wish to express my appreciation to
John
Wiley
and Sons forthe understanding, patience, and encouragement they have extended meover the years.
Stanford,
Caltf0miD
August
1966
Krishnamurty Karamcheti
Contents
1.
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . • .
..
-
......
.
,
..
1.1
Fluid as a Continuous Medium . . . . . . . . • • • .
1.2
Properties
of
a
Fluid
at
Rest:
Thermodynamic properties;
Compressibility.; Incompressible fluid; : Heat conduction andthe coefficient
of
thermal conductivity
....••..••.
1.3
Properties
of
a Fluid in Motion: Friction
or
viscosity;
Coefficient
of
viscosity; Compressibility; Heat transfer.
1.4
Laminar and turbulent motioos . . . .
..
. . . . . • .
1.5
Some Relevant Parameters: Relative magnitude
of
the foroes,Froude number, ReynOlds number, and
M~h
number;Par.ameters characterizing compressibility; PrandtJ number;Parameters
on
which force and heat transfer depend
..•.
1.6 Range
of
Some Parameters
.....
:
....•
1.1
Conditiong for Neglecting Compressibility' Effects;
Case
of
liquids; Case of
gases.
•.
.
.,
. .
.',
. . . • • .
1.8
Conditions for
~eglecting
Gravity
EffeCts
. • . . " . .
1.9
Nature
of
the Problem when Compressibility Effects areNegligible. . . . . . . .
..
. . . . . . . . . • . . .1.10 Variation
of
Fl(>w
Patterns with Reynolds
Num~;
Flow pastbluff bodies; Flow past stteamlined bodies . . . . . .
".
1.11
Variation
of
Flow Pattern with Mach number . . . . . . .
J.l2
Effects
of
Viscosity
at
High Reynolds Numbers:,
The
Boundarylayer: Boundary layer concept; Some characteristiCs
of
thelami.nar boundary layer; Turbulent boundary layer; sep-arauon; Wakes . . .
...
............
..
1.13
Consequences
of
the Boundary-Layer Concept
..
1.14
Ideal Fluid Theory
........
.........
.
1
2
2
4
10
13
,23
23
25
25
26
3S
2.
ELEMENTS
OF
VEcrOR
ALGEBRA AND
<;:ALCULUS56
2.1
, Representation
of
a
Vector.
2.2 Addition and Subtraction . .
2.3
Definition
of
a Vector . . .2.4 Multiplication
by
a Number .
2.S
Unit Vector
..
. . . . . .2.6 Zero Vector
.......
.2.7 ScalarProduct
of
Two Vectors
ix
"
.'
57
S8
6060
616161