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MC0083

MC0083

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Published by Hemant Soni
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Published by: Hemant Soni on Jan 15, 2012
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1
Master of Computer Application (MCA) ± Semester 5
 
MC0083 ± Object Oriented Analysis &
 
Design using UMLAssignment no : Set 1
Que 1. Write about the Object Oriented Systems Development Methodology withrelevant real time examples.
Ans:-
Object oriented systems development methodology
 
In an object-oriented environment, software is a collection of discrete objects thatencapsulate their data as well as the functionality to model real world ³
objects
´.
In an objectoriented system, everything is an object and each object is responsible for itself 
.
In a payrollapplication, instead of saying, ³System, compute the payroll of this employee
´
, you tell theemployee object, ³Compute your payroll
´.
 
1.4 Advantages of Object Orientation
 Object oriented systems are easier to adapt to changing requirements, easier tomaintain, more robust, and promote greater design and code reuse
.
 ·
High
er level of abstract 
on:
Top-down approach supports abstraction at the function level
.
 The object-oriented approach supports abstraction at the object level
.
Since objectsencapsulate both data (attributes) and functions (methods), they work at a higher level of abstraction
.
 ·
Seamless trans
on amon
fferent p
h
ases of software development:
The object-oriented approach essentially uses the same language to talk about analysis, design,programming and database design
.
This seamless approach reduces the level of complexityand redundancy and makes for clearer, more robust system development
.
 ·
Encoura
ement of 
ood pro
ramm
n
tec 
h
n
iq 
ues
:
In a properly designed system, theclasses will be grouped into subsystems but remain independent; therefore, changing one classhas no impact on other classes, and so, the impact is minimized which encourages goodprogramming
.
 ·
romot 
on of reusab
ty 
:
Objects are reusable because they are modeled directly out of real-world problem domain
.
The object orientation adds inheritance, which is a powerful technique
 
2
 
that allows classes to be built from each other and therefore, only differences andenhancements between the classes need to be designed and coded
.
 
Que.2. Describe the following Object Oriented concepts with relevant real-timeexamples:o Objectso Encapsulation and Information Hidingo Polymorphism
Ans:-
Objects
 
The term object was first formally utilized in the Simula language
.
 
h
e term object means a comb
nat 
on of data and lo
gi 
c t 
h
at represents some real world ent 
ty.
 When developing an object-oriented application, two basic questions always rise:· What objects does the application need?· What functionality should those objects have?Programming in an object-oriented system which consists of adding new kinds of objectsto the system and defining how they behave
.
 
Objects are grouped in classes
  A class is a set of objects that share a common structure and a common behavior, asingle object is simply an instance of a class
.
A class is a specification of structure (instancevariables), behavior (methods), and inheritance of objects
.
 
 
3
 
F
ig. 2.1: Sue, Bill, Al, Hal, and David are instances or objects of the
 
class Employee
 
 Attributes: Object state and properties
Properties represent the state of an object
:
 
For example in a car object, the manufacturer could be denoted by a name, a referenceto a manufacturer object, or a corporate tax identification number 
.
In general object¶s abstractstate can be independent of its physical representation
.
 Fig
.
2
.
2: The attributes of a car objectObject behavior and methods
A method is a function or procedure that is defined for a class and typically canaccess the internal state of an object of that class to perform some operation.
 
Behavior denotes the collection of methods that abstractly describes what an object is capable of doing
.
 Each procedure defines and describes a particular behavior of the object
.
The object, called thereceiver, is that on which the method operates
.
Methods encapsulate the behavior of the object,provide interfaces to the object, and hide any of the internal structures and states maintained bythe object
.
 
Objects respond to messages
 

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