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Mozart Effect

Mozart Effect

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Mozart Effect from Wikipedia
Mozart Effect from Wikipedia

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Mozart effect1
Mozart effect
Mozart effect
can refer to:A set of research results that indicate that listening to Mozart's music may induce a short-term improvement onthe performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as "spatial-temporal reasoning;"
Popularized versions of the theory, which suggest that "listening to Mozart makes you smarter," or that earlychildhood exposure to classical music has a beneficial effect on mental development;A US trademark for a set of commercial recordings and related materials, which are claimed to harness the effectfor a variety of purposes. The trademark owner, Don Campbell, Inc.,
claims benefits far beyond improvingspatio-temporal reasoning or raising intelligence, defining the mark as "an inclusive term signifying thetransformational powers of music in health, education, and well-being."The term was first coined by Alfred A. Tomatis who used Mozart's music as the listening stimulus in his work attempting to cure a variety of disorders. The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and isbased on an experiment published in
suggesting that listening to Mozart temporarily boosted scores on oneportion of the IQ test.
As a result, the Governor of Georgia, Zell Miller, proposed a budget to provide every childborn in Georgia with a CD of classical music.
Alfred A. Tomatis
The concept of the "Mozart effect" was described by French researcher, Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis in his 1991 book 
 Pourquoi Mozart?
Why Mozart?
). He used the music of Mozart in his efforts to "retrain" the ear, and believed thatlistening to the music presented at differing frequencies helped the ear, and promoted healing and the developmentof the brain.
Rauscher et. al. 1993 study
Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) investigated the effect of listening to music by Mozart on spatial reasoning, and the results were published in 
. They gave research participants one of three standard tests of abstract spatial reasoning after they had experienced each of three listening conditions: a sonata by Mozart, repetitive relaxationmusic, and silence. They found a temporary enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning, as measured by theStanford-Binet IQ test. Shaw and Rauscher claim that their work has been misrepresented. What they have shown is"that there are patterns of neurons that fire in sequences, and that there appear to be pre-existing sites in the brain thatrespond to specific frequencies."* This is not quite the same as showing that listening to Mozart increasesintelligence in children.
Rauscher et. al. show that the enhancing effect of the music condition is only temporary: no student had effectsextending beyond the 15-minute period in which they were tested. The study makes no statement of an increase inIQ in general, but in participants' spatial intelligence scores.
While Rauscher et. al. only showed anincrease in "spatial intelligence", the results were popularly interpreted as an increase in general IQ. This misconception, and the fact that the music used in the study was by Mozart, had anobvious appeal to those who valued this music; the Mozart effect was thus widely reported. In 1994,
 New York Times
music columnist Alex Ross wrote in a light-hearted article, "researchers [Rauscher and Shaw] have determined thatlistening to Mozart actually makes you smarter", and presented this as the final piece of evidence that Mozart hasdethroned Beethoven as "the world's greatest composer." A 1997
 Boston Globe
article mentioned some of theRauscher and Shaw results. It described one study in which three- and four-year-olds who were given eight months
Mozart effect2of private piano lessons scored 34% higher on tests of spatio-temporal reasoning than control groups given computerlessons, singing lessons, and no training.The 1997 book by Don Campbell, "The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of Musicto Heal the Body, Strengthenthe Mind, and Unlock the Creative Spirit", discusses the theory that listening to Mozart (especially the pianoconcertos) may temporarily increase one's IQ and produce many other beneficial effects on mental function.Campbell recommends playing specially selected classical music to infants, in the expectation that it will benefittheir mental development. These theories are controversial. The relationship of sound and music (both played andlistened to) for cognitive function and various physiological metrics has been explored in studies with no definitiveresults. After
The Mozart Effect 
, Campbell wrote a follow-up book,
The Mozart Effect For Children
, and createdrelated products. Among these are collections of music that he states harness the Mozart effect to enhance "deep restand rejuvenation", "intelligence and learning", and "creativity and imagination". Campbell defines the term as "aninclusive term signifying the transformational powers of music in health, education, and well-being. It represents thegeneral use of music to reduce stress, depression, or anxiety; induce relaxation or sleep; activate the body; andimprove memory or awareness. Innovative and experimental uses of music and sound can improve listeningdisorders, dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, autism, and other mental and physical disorders and diseases".
Political impact
The political impact of the theory was demonstrated on January 13, 1998, when Zell Miller, governor of Georgia,announced that his proposed state budget would include $105,000 a year to provide every child born in Georgia witha tape or CD of classical music. Miller stated "No one questions that listening to music at a very early age affects thespatial-temporal reasoning that underlies math and engineering and even chess." Miller played legislators some of Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" on a tape recorder and asked "Now, don't you feel smarter already?" Miller asked YoelLevi, music director of the Atlanta Symphony, to compile a collection of classical pieces that should be included.State representative Homer M. DeLoach said "I asked about the possibility of including some Charlie Daniels orsomething like that, but they said they thought the classical music has a greater positive impact. Having neverstudied those impacts too much, I guess I'll just have to take their word for that."
Subsequent research and Meta-analyses
While some supportive reports have been published (e.g.
), studies with positive results have tended to be small,and indicate that while any form of music with energetic and positive emotional qualities.
can be arousing, there isno effect on IQ or spatial ability
The weight of subsequent evidence supports either a null effect, or short-term effects on mood and arousal, withnumerous null results published after the initial report in
).In 1999 a major challenge was raised to the existence of the Mozart effect by two teams of researchers
. In apair of papers published together under the title "Prelude or Requiem for the 'Mozart Effect'?" Chabris reported ameta-analysis demonstrating that "any cognitive enhancement is small and does not reflect any change in IQ orreasoning ability in general, but instead derives entirely from performance on one specific type of cognitive task andhas a simple neuropsychological explanation", called "enjoyment arousal". For example, he cites a study that foundthat "listening either to Mozart or to a passage from a Stephen King story enhanced subjects' performance in paperfolding and cutting (one of the tests frequently employed by Rauscher and Shaw) but only for those who enjoyedwhat they heard". Steele et. al. found that "listening to Mozart produced a 3-point increase relative to silence in oneexperiment and a 4-point decrease in the other experiment".
Government bodies also became involved in analysing the wealth (some 300+ articles as of 2005) of reports. AGerman report concluded, for instance, that "... passively listening to Mozart
or indeed any other music you enjoy
does not make you smarter. But more studies should be done to find out whether music lessons could raise your
Mozart effect3child's IQ in the long term".
Popular presentations of the "Mozart effect", including Alex Ross's comment that "listening to Mozart actuallymakes you smarter" and Zell Miller's "don't you feel smarter" query to the Georgia legislature, almost always tie it to"intelligence." Rauscher, one of the original researchers, has disclaimed this idea. In a 1999 reply to an articlechallenging the effect,
published along with the article, she wrote (emphasis added):Our results on the effects of listening to
 Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K. 448
temporal task performance have generated much interest but several misconceptions, many of whichare reflected in attempts to replicate the research. The comments by Chabris and Steele et al. echo the mostcommon of these: that listening to Mozart enhances intelligence.
We made no such claim.
The effect is limitedto spatial
temporal tasks involving mental imagery and temporal ordering.On efforts like Miller's budget proposal, and the press attention surrounding the effect, Rauscher has said, "I don'tthink it can hurt. I'm all for exposing children to wonderful cultural experiences. But I do think the money could bebetter spent on music education programs."
Health benefits
Music has been evaluated to see if it has other properties. The April 2001 edition of 
 Journal of the Royal Society of  Medicine
assessed the possible health benefits of the music of Mozart.
John Jenkins played Sonata K.448 topatients with epilepsy and found a decrease in epileptiform activity. According to the British Epilepsy Organization,research has suggested that apart from Mozart's K.448 and Piano Concerto No. 23 (K. 488), only one other piece of music has been found to have a similar effect; a song by the Greek composer Yanni, entitled "Acroyali/Standing inMotion" (version from
Yanni Live at the Acropolis performed at the Acropolis
It was determined to have the"Mozart effect", by the
 Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
because it was similar to Mozart's K.448 in tempo,structure, melodic and harmonic consonance and predictability.
Other uses of Mozart's music
While it is clear that exposure to Mozart does not raise IQ, studies of the effects of music have explored as diverseareas as its links to seizure onset
or research in animals suggesting that even exposure in-utero in ratsimproves their maze learning
The original claim continues to influence public life. For instance a German sewagetreatment plant plays Mozart music to break down the waste faster, reports the UK
. Anton Stucki, chief operator of the Treuenbrietzen plant., is quoted as saying, "We think the secret is in the vibrations of the music,which penetrate everything
including the water, the sewage and the cells."
[1]William Pryse-Phillips (2003).
Companion to Clinical Neurology
. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195159381., p. 611 defines the term as"Slight and transient improvement in spational[sic] reasoning skills detected in normal subjects as a result of exposure to the music of Mozart,specifically his sonata for two pianos (K448)."[2]United States Patent and Trademark Office Trademark Application and Registration Retrieval (TARR)."Latest Status Info (75094728)" (http://tarr.
uspto.gov/servlet/tarr?regser=serial&entry=75094728). Filed 1996-04-26. . Retrieved2009-04-28."Latest Status Info (75094727)" (http://tarr.
uspto.gov/servlet/tarr?regser=serial&entry=75094727). Filed 1996-04-26. . Retrieved2009-04-28.[3]Prelude or requiem for the 'Mozart effect'? (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v400/n6747/abs/400827a0.
(1999-08-26): 827.[4]Rauscher, F., Shaw, G., Ky, K. (1993). Music and spatial task performance (http://www.
pdf).Nature, 365 611. Retrieved 2009-04-29.[5]Campbell, Don (1997).
The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind, and Unlock the CreativeSpirit 
. ISBN 0-380-97418-5.[6]Sack, Kevin (1998-01-15). "Georgia's Governor Seeks Musical Start for Babies". The New York Times. p. A12.

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