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A. A. Berezin et al- Is It Possible to Create a Laser Based on Information Biomacromolecules?

A. A. Berezin et al- Is It Possible to Create a Laser Based on Information Biomacromolecules?

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 1211
  Laser Physics, Vol. 6, No. 6, 1996, pp. 1211–1213.
 Original Text Copyright © 1996 by Astro, Ltd. English Translation Copyright © 1996 by
åÄàä ç‡Û͇
  /Interperiodica Publishing (Russia).
 Several decades have past since the Nobel Prize win-ners Academicians A.M. Prokhorov and N.G. Basov(Russia) and Ch. Townes (USA) put forward and imple-mented the idea of quantum oscillators. At present, onecan hardly name a branch of science and technologywhere quantum oscillators are not applied (from biol-ogy and medicine to laser thermonuclear fusion). Thesuccessors made a great contribution to the develop-ment of this concept.This paper is a priority one. We pose the question asto whether it is possible to create
in vitro
 a laser basedon information biomacromolecules, first of all, DNA,RNA, and chromosomes. It is difficult to expect theconstruction of high-power lasers based on these struc-tures. The question is posed in a different manner: wewould like to know what new data about DNA, RNA,and chromosomes can be obtained with the help of sucha laser through the study of the parameters of its radia-tion. In our opinion, these investigations will providefundamentally new results. For example, one canobtain the data on the nonlinear dynamics of DNA,RNA, and chromosomes, including the soliton-typedynamics, rovibrational oscillations, modulation of thedispersion of optical rotation and circular dichroism,energy transfer, and some others layers of informationunavailable earlier (with the use of such methodology).Dynamic modifications of the laser beam of this typecan be of the semantic–genetic–biosymbolic type and,therefore, can possess a tremendous biological activity.Earlier, we suggested the initial ideas on this subject[1–3]. Specifically, we discussed the idea of the con-struction of a laser system using the Frölich modes [1, 2].Yu.N. Zhivlyuk (Russia) expressed an interesting ideaabout the possibility of construction of a biolasersbased on cellular structures (private communication).This idea is based on the possibility of application of phase transitions at the secondary, tertiary, and higherstructural levels of biomacromolecules.The difficulty of the demonstration of the correct-ness of all these ideas is associated with the fact that themajority of genetic structures containing aromatic andheterocycle rings are “transparent” within the charac-teristic spectral range of 350–400 nm. Another diffi-culty is that high-power pumping would inevitablydestroy “fragile” biostructures, which has been demon-strated experimentally by the research group headed byS.G. Rautiman, the Corresponding Member of the Rus-sian Academy of Sciences.To implement some of the discussed concepts, wecarried out an
in vitro
 investigation of the spectra of two-photon-excited luminescence (TPEL) of gel–liq-uid-crystal samples of nucleohiston, which is a sumfraction of chromosomes where histon proteins andDNA dominate (standard high-polymer preparations of Sigma). To substantially increase the intensity of TPELof genetic structures, we suggested a method of activa-tion of luminescence by the introduction of activators(donors) of TPEL into the samples under study. Theabsorption spectra of organic molecules used as activa-tors are close to those of DNA and nucleohiston. Thesemolecules are characterized by a high intensity of emis-sion spectra that lie within the areas of absorption of DNA and nucleohiston. We used crystalline dimedrolas an activator. Its structure contains a pair of benzenerings, which provides an intense asymmetric band of TPEL in a broad spectral range of 280–350 nm (thedashed line in Fig. 1).We used a copper-vapor laser for photon pumpingof the samples under study. This laser operated in astandard pulse–periodic regime at the repetition rate of 
 LASER METHODS IN CHEMISTRY,BIOLOGY, AND MEDICINE
 Is It Possible to Create a Laser Basedon Information Biomacromolecules?
 A. A. Berezin*, P. P. Garyaev*, V. S. Gorelik**, S. A. Reshetnyak**, and V. A. Shcheglov**
 *Department of Theoretical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia**Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow, Russia
 e-mail: optdep@sci.fian.msk.suReceived August 2, 1996
 Abstract
 —A method of enhancement of luminescence from information biomacromolecules by the introduc-tion of an activator (donor) into the samples under study is proposed. The experimental and theoretical studiesof two pairs of mixtures (DNA + dimedrol and nucleohiston + dimedrol) demonstrate that a superfluorescenceregime can be implemented in these two-component mixtures under two-photon excitation. Several intrinsicmetabolites of biosystems (nucleotides, vitamins, alkaloids, etc.) can function
in vivo
 as dimedrol-like activa-tors. We formulate a hypothesis that the laser pumping of genetic structures is implemented
in vivo
 due to theenergy of the corresponding ATP systems.
 The truth always wins, but sometimes plays a draw.
 
 1212
 LASER PHYSICS
 
Vol. 6
 
No. 6
 
1996
 BEREZIN
et al
 .
 10 kHz, mean power of 1–3 W, peak power of 10
 
6
 W,lasing wavelengths of 510.8 and 578.2 nm (green andyellow lines), and pulse duration of 10–20 ns. The laserbeam was focused into a spot 2–3 mm in diameter at thesample. This laser was rather efficient for the excitationof TPEL in the studies of electron–vibrational spectraof proteins, DNA, nucleohiston, and their components(purines, pyrimidines, and amino acids [3, 4]). Thedetection system consisted of a filter for the selection of laser lines (510.8 and 578.2 nm), a filter for the selec-tion of luminescence in the UV and violet ranges (withsuppression of laser radiation), a monochromator(MDR-2) for spectral scanning within a broad range(from UV to visible), a two-coordinate plotter for spec-tra recording, and a unit for the control of the referencesignal and the determination of the efficiency of thedetected signal. We used a strobe pulse with a durationof 25–30 ns synchronized with the excitation pulse tosuppress thermal fluctuations. The secondary emissionpulse was detected by means of an FEU-130 photomul-tiplier.Figure 1 presents the spectra of a gel–liquid-crystalpreparation of DNA mixed with dimedrol (DNA–DL)and of nucleohiston with dimedrol (NH–DL). It is seenthat the amplitude of the TPEL spectrum of DNA–DLis only an order of magnitude lower than that of theTPEL spectrum of pure dimedrol. It provides a substan-tial increase in the TPEL intensity of the DNA–DLmixture in comparison with a pure sample of DNA inthe form of solid gel [3]. This spectrum also revealssome other specific features of the mixtures understudy. The quantum yield of TPEL for the NH–DL mix-ture was lower than that for the DNA–DL mixture.Another typical feature is the increase and quenchingof TPEL in time. For NH–DL, the TPEL intensityincreased in time (Fig. 2). Curve
1
 corresponds to thebeginning of the experiment. Curves
2
 and
3
 (with theincrease of luminescence) were detected 30 and 50 minafter the beginning of the experiment, respectively.An opposite effect is observed in the case of DNA–DL(Fig. 3). We should note the presence of a vibronicstructure in the spectra of TPEL in the form of separateoverlapping bands in the range of 310–370 nm, whichis especially clearly pronounced for DNA–DL (Fig. 3).Such a structure is close to that observed earlier for thespectra of TPEL of nucleoside triphosphates [4].A fast quasi-resonant energy transfer from excitedmolecules of dimedrol to genostructures under studycan be the reason for abrupt increase in the quantumyield of TPEL of nucleohiston and DNA in the pres-ence of an activating donor. A fine multiband structureof DNA spectra observed in this case correlates withthe type of vibronic bands for a series of aromatic andheterocyclic compounds, including pure nucleosidetriphosphates and DNA [4]. This splitting of spectramay be due to transitions of electrons in biomacromol-ecules from the electronic term
S
 
1
 to excited vibrationallevels of the ground state
S
 
0
 . In this case, a populationinversion at the transitions
S
 
1
 
 S
 
0
 can be implemented if the population of the
S
 
1
 term is sufficient.Let us estimate the intensity
 I 
 
0
 of laser radiation thatis necessary for inversion (superfluorescence) underconditions of the experiments performed. The condi-tions of inversion can be written as
  N 
 
1
 g
 
 ν
  / 
  N 
 
 ν
 g
 
1
 > 1,(1)
 50290
  I 
 , rel. units
 λ 
 , nm310330350370390100
 ×
 1
 ×
 10
 12
 ×
 10
 Fig. 1.
 Normalized spectra of two-photon excited lumines-cence (TPEL) of (dashed line) dimedrol, (
 1
 ) DNA–dimedrolmixture and (
 2
 ) nucleohiston–dimedrol mixture.
 50300
  I 
 , rel. units320340360380
 λ 
 , nm
 ×
 10
 123
 Fig. 2.
 Dynamics of the increase of TPEL of the nucleohis-ton–dimedrol mixture in time: spectra are measured (
 1
 ) atthe beginning of the experiment, (
 2
 ) 30 min, and (
 3
 ) 50 minafter the beginning of the experiment.
 50300
  I 
 , rel. units
 λ 
 , nm100320340360380
 ×
 10
 123
 Fig. 3.
 Dynamics of the quenching of TPEL of the DNA–dimedrol mixture in time: spectra are measured (
 1
 ) at thebeginning of the experiment, (
 2
 ) 30 min, and (
 3
 ) 50 minafter the beginning of the experiment.

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