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Temperature Anisotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Temperature Anisotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

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Published by Ankan Mukherjee

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Published by: Ankan Mukherjee on Jan 16, 2012
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Seminar Report (SM411)
 Ankan Mukherjee (10IP10)
  Indian Institute of Science and Educational Research, Kolkata
This report is basically an introduction of cosmic microwave background radiation with the review of very basic observational characteristics. The observed black body spectrum and the lowering of temperature due to
in frame work of 
 Friedmann cosmology
for homogeneous universe havebeen discussed. Then the observed
 temperature anisotropy
has been focused with the detail analysisof 
 acoustic oscillation
, the basic reason of small scale anisotropy.
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is thermal radiation filling the observable universealmost uniformly. The CMB radiation observed today was radiated at the
stage’ (the
stage of formation of hydrogen atom) of the universe. The early universe was hot, dense and opaque.Radiation was constantly absorbed and emitted by the early charged particles (electrons andprotons).The universe cooled as it expanded adiabatically and due to recombination, became transparent. Asthe temperature continued to drop, neutral hydrogen atoms formed, the photons could travel withoutinteraction. These are the photons that reach observer today as the CMB radiation. That is why it iscalled the
 Relic Radiation
1.Discovery of CMB:
The cosmic microwave background was 1st theoretically predicted in 1948 by
George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Robert Herman
. Alpher and Herman were able to estimate the temperature of thecosmic microwave background to be 5K, though two years later they re-estimated it at 28 K.In the early
1960s, Robert Dicke
again theoretically estimated the presence of CMB radiation.In 1964,
 David Todd Wilkinson and Peter Roll, Dicke's
colleagues at Princeton University, beganconstructing a Dicke radiometer to measure the cosmic microwave background.In
1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
at the Crawford Hill location of Bell TelephoneLaboratories in New Jersey had built a Dicke radiometer that they intended to use for radio astronomyand satellite communication experiments.Their instrument had an
excess 3.5K antenna temperature
which they could not account for.
Combining this to the theoretical explanation of Dicke it was decided that the excess temperature isdue to the CMB radiation. For this incredible discovery Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prizein 1978.
2. Observed features of CMB:
2.1. Black body spectrum:
The observed energy spectrum is
detected as a ‘
 blackbody radiation
spectrum with a temperature
. The radiation occurred at 3000K, but due to the 1100 foldexpansion of the universe, these photons have been red-shifted and observed as low temperature black body spectrum.
Fig 1: Black body spectrum of CMB, peaked atthe microwave region of frequency
2.1.1.Relation between the red-shift and temperature of radiation :
At T=3000K, there were just enough high energy (high frequency) photons to ionized the particles.With further cooling lead to recombination.Recombination temperature T= 3000K. and temperature of the observer radiation spectrum
=2.725K. The relation between T and
is written as
(1 )
T T z
[ where
is called the
and defined as
( )( )
a  za
is the
scale factor 
expansion factor 
defined the
 FRW metric
is the present time, is the time of radiation.]Thus with the observed value of 
(=2.725K) and statistically estimated value of 
(=3000K), we get
, i.e. due to the 1100 fold expansion of the universe the CMB photons are detected asblackbody radiation of temperature 2.725K.
CMB Temperature anisotropy:
The anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) consists of the small temperaturefluctuations in the blackbody radiation in the different direction of the sky.The largest fluctuation estimated is ~200 micro K.
Fig2: Sky Images showing temperature distribution (
 Pics: from “Fluctuation in CMB” (NASA)
Without any contrast enhancement in the observing instrument the CMB sky looks like a uniformdistribution of temperature. But with the increasing resolution we can observe the small temperaturefluctuations superimposed on this average.
CMB Polarization:
The observed CMB photons are polarized. This polarization pattern can be studied in COBE andWMAP along with the measurement of temperature fluctuation.
This image shows the plane of polarization along with temperature anisotropy

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