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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics?

1.2 Brief History

1.3 Kinds of Fluids

1.5 Viscosity

1.5.1 General

1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids

1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity

1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity

1.6 Fluid Properties

1.6.1 Fluid Density

1.6.2 Bulk Modulus

1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces

2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions

Review of Mechanics

3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body

3.2 Center of Mass

3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass

3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area

3.3 Moment of Inertia

3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass

Moment of Inertia

3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area

3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia

3.3.4 Product of Inertia

3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia

3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque

3.5.1 Tables of geometries

Fluids Statics

4.1 Introduction

4.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 73

4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field

4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field

4.3.2 Pressure Measurement

Inclined Manometer

4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field

4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations

4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density

4.3.6 Liquid Phase

4.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System

4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System

4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems:
Constant Density

4.4.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System

4.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces

4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces

4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces

4.6.1 Stability

4.6.2 Surface Tension

4.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability

4.8 Qualetive questions

Integral Analysis

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Control Volume

5.3 Continuity Equation

5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume

5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids

5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem

5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation

5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship

5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation

Momentum Conservation for

6.1 Momentum Governing Equation

6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous

6.1.2 External Forces

6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation

6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System

6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow

6.2 Momentum Equation Application

6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow

6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State

6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum

6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation

6.4.1 Qualitative Questions

Energy Conservation

7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach

7.3. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 215

7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation

7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State

7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State

7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System

7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate

7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System

7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System

7.4.4 Simpliﬁed Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate

7.4.5 Energy Losses in Incompressible Flow

7.5 Examples of Integral Energy Conservation

Diﬀerential Analysis

8.1 Introduction

8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples

8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation

8.3 Conservation of General Quantity

8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations

8.3.2 Examples of Several Quantities

8.4 Momentum Conservation

8.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 249

8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation

8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces

8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories

8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes)

8.7.1 Interfacial Instability

Dimensional Analysis

9.1 Introductory Remarks

9.1.1 Brief History

9.1.2 Theory Behind Dimensional Analysis

9.1.3 Dimensional Parameters Application for Experimental Study

9.1.4 The Pendulum Class Problem

9.2 Buckingham–π–Theorem

9.2.1 Construction of the Dimensionless Parameters

9.2.2 Basic Units Blocks

9.2.3 Implementation of Construction of Dimensionless Parame-
ters

9.2.4 Similarity and Similitude

9.3 Nusselt’s Technique

9.4 Summary of Dimensionless Numbers

9.4.1 The Signiﬁcance of these Dimensionless Numbers

9.4.2 Relationship Between Dimensionless Numbers

9.4.3 Examples for Dimensional Analysis

9.5 Summary

9.6 Appendix summary of Dimensionless Form of Navier–

Multi–Phase Flow

10.1 Introduction

10.2 History

10.3 What to Expect From This Chapter

10.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow

10.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes

10.5.1 Co–Current Flow

10.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 339

10.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions

10.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions

10.7 Homogeneous Models

10.7.1 Pressure Loss Components

10.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model

10.8 Solid–Liquid Flow

10.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL

10.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow

10.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion

A.1 Vectors

A.1.1 Vector Algebra

A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors

A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations

A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE)

A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations

A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation

A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations

A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations

A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations

A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation

A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE

A.4 Trigonometry

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12/31/2012

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