3in-migration from rural areas as well (Mathews 2001). Demographically, Bombay has one of the highest population densities in the world. It houses 160,000 people per square mile. As evident it is a highly, urbancity. In addition it is also the financial powerhouse of India. It is home to the country's richest people as well asthe biggest population of slum dwellers in the Asia (McNeil 1995). As evident in India there is a contradictionwith increasing growth rates and increasing poverty. Although population is a contributing factor the cause of poverty is the uneven distribution of resources by the state namely the rural-urban divide in resource allocation.
The Rural-Urban Divide.
Today 74.7 percent of the population lives in rural areas and 24.3 percent inhabit urban areas. In urbanareas there is a heavy concentration of telephones, televisions and doctors. As 70 percent of the country’s population mainly in rural areas lack access to primary health care the worst affected is the elderly, youngwomen and children. Major environmental issues in rural areas are deforestation, soil erosion, overgrazing,desertification, and water pollution from runoff of agricultural pesticides. In urban areas there are issues of water pollution from sewage and air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions. India is also prone to natural disasters such as droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms and earthquakes (Mathews 2001).Although India boasts more than 200 universities mainly in urban areas and has one of the largesteducational systems it has failed to wipe out illiteracy. For those that are educated there are no jobs as morethan 40 million people are unemployed. India has the largest share of illiterate women in the world. The poor educational status of the girl-child increases the fertility rate, maternal and infant mortality, and malnutrition inthe family. Rights of women to land and property are rarely recognized. This increases the risk of poverty towomen and their families and increases poverty overall as women and children makeup two-thirds of the population. (Mathews 2001)One of the major factors affecting fertility rates in India is the illiteracy of women. India has a totalfertility rate of 2.98 children born per woman. The literacy rate (defined as those age 15 and over that can readand write) is 65.5% for males and 37.7% for females. The infant mortality rate is 61.47 deaths per 1000 live