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Florida v. U.S. Dep't of Health & Human Services, Cato Legal Briefs

Florida v. U.S. Dep't of Health & Human Services, Cato Legal Briefs

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Published by: Cato Institute on Jan 17, 2012
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10/10/2013

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 No. 11-400In the
Supreme Court of the United States
STATES OF FLORIDA, et al.,
  Petitioners
,v.U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMANSERVICES , et al.,
Respondents.
On Writ of Certiorari to the United States
Court of 
 Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit
BRIEF OF
 AMICI CURIAE 
CENTER FORCONSTITUTIONAL JURISPRUDENCE,PACIFIC LEGAL FOUNDATION,CATO INSTITUTE, CONGRESSMAN DENNYREHBERG AND DR. JEFF COLYERIN SUPPORT OF PETITIONERS(MEDICAID SPENDING/COERCION ISSUE)
E
DWIN
M
EESE
III214 Massachusetts Ave. N.E.Washington D.C. 20002T
IMOTHY 
S
 ANDEFUR
 Pacific Legal Foundation930 G StreetSacramento, CA 95814I
LYA 
S
HAPIRO
 Cato Institute1000 Mass. Ave., N.W.Washington, D.C. 20001J
OHN
C.
 
E
 ASTMAN
 
Counsel of Record
 A 
NTHONY 
T.
 
C
 ASO
 
 AREN
J.
 
L
UGO
 Center for ConstitutionalJurisprudencec/o Chapman Univ. Sch. of LawOne University DriveOrange, California 92886(714) 628-2587 jeastman@chapman.edu
Counsel for Amici Curiae
 
 i
QUESTION PRESENTED
1. Against the backdrop of a federal spending pro-gram the constitutionality of which is both dubiousand untested, does Congress exceed its enumeratedpowers and violate basic principles of federalismwhen it coerces States into accepting onerous condi-tions that it could not impose directly by threateningto withhold all federal funding under the single larg-est grant-in-aid program, or does the limitation onCongress’s spending power that this Court recog-nized in
South Dakota v. Dole
, 483 U.S. 203 (1987),no longer apply?
 
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
QUESTION PRESENTED
................................................ i
 
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
........................................... iii
 
INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAE
.................................... 1
 
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT
......................................... 3
 
 ARGUMENT
....................................................................... 5
 
I.
 
THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACTUNCONSTITUTIONALLY COERCESSTATES TO IMPLEMENT THE FEDERALGOVERNMENT’S MEDICAID EXPANSION
....... 5
 
 A.
 
The Coercion Prong of the
 Dole
SpendingClause Analysis Must Be Given Effect.
............ 5
 
B.
 
The ACA Violates the Prohibition AgainstCoercive Conditional Spending.
.......................... 8
 
C.
 
Notions of “Political Process Federalism”Cannot Salvage the ACA.
................................... 12
 
II.
 
THE SPENDING CLAUSE, LIKE THECOMMERCE CLAUSE, HAS OUTERLIMITS.
........................................................................ 16
 
 A.
 
Spending Clause Jurisprudence Since
 Butler
Has Not Paid Sufficient Heed to the“Outer Limits” of Constitutional Authority.
.. 16
 
B.
 
Basic Separation of Powers PrinciplesRequire This Court to EnforceConstitutional Limits on Spending Authority.
............................................................... 23
 
CONCLUSION
................................................................. 26
 

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