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Table Of Contents

1. Preamble: the problem of the pivot
2. Goals and contents of this thesis
2.1. Objectives
2.2. Overview
3. The theory of grammar
3.1. Phrase structure
3.2. Movement and features
2 A typology of relative constructions
1. Introduction
2. Overview: definitions, examples, and parametric freedom
2.1. The definition of ‘relative construction’
2.2. Examples of important relative clause types
2.3 Parametric freedom
2.4. Syntactic main types of relatives
2.5. Terminological remarks
3. On the semantics of relative clauses: Grosu & Landman’s scale
4. Lehmann’s functional classification of relative constructions
5. Downing’s universals and general implications
6. Special types of relative clauses
6.1. Correlatives
6.2. Circumnominal relatives
6.3. Free relatives
6.3.1. Types and properties of free relatives
6.3.3. A systematic classification of free relatives
6.4. Adverbial relatives
6.5. Non-finite relatives
6.6. Cleft and pseudo-cleft sentences
7. Aspects of the relative construction
7.1. Relative pronouns and particles
7.2. The position of the external determiner
7.3. Recursive and linear multiple embedding
7.4. Pied piping and preposition stranding
7.5. Extraposition
7.6. Multiple relativization
8. Conclusion
3 Towards the syntax of relativization
2. General discussion
2.1. The historical development of the theory on the syntax of relativization
2.2. The D-complement hypothesis
2.3. The raising analysis of relative clauses
2.3.1. Circumnominal relatives
2.3.2. The pivot function of the head noun
2.3.4. Binding facts
2.4. Conclusion
3.1. Outline of the different analyses
3.1.1. The old standard theory
3.1.2. The revised standard theory
3.1.3. The revised raising analysis
3.1.5. The antisymmetric promotion theory
3.2. Evaluation: syntactic main types and word order
3.2.1. Preliminaries: phrase structure rules and underlying orders
3.2.2. The derivation of relative constructions in VO languages
3.2.3. The derivation of relative constructions in OV languages
3.2.4. Summary and conclusion
3.3. Evaluation: the relation between the antecedent and the gap
3.4. Summary
4. Conclusion
2. The promotion theory: previous scholarship
2.1. Kayne’s (1994) analysis and Borsley’s (1997) criticism
2.2. Bianchi (1999/2000a)
3. Postnominal relatives
3.1. Wh-movement
3.2. Case and agreement
3.3. The relation between N and D
3.4. A detailed derivation of postnominal restrictive relatives
3.5. ‘That’-relatives
3.6. Word order variation
3.7. Conclusion
4. Prenominal relatives
5. Circumnominal relatives
5.1. Introduction and properties
5.2. Historical developments concerning the analysis
5.3. The derivation of circumnominal relatives
5.4. Additional issues
5.4.1. The indefiniteness effect
5.4.2. Verbs and morphology
5.4.3. Nominalization and cross-linguistic generalizations
5.4.5. Island effects
5.4.6. Maximalization and subjacency
6. Correlatives
6.1. Introduction and properties
5.3. The derivation of correlative constructions
7. The syntax of main types of relatives: summary and conclusion
2.2. From functions to syntax: a revision of Lehmann (1984)
3. The syntax of relative elements
3.1. The COMP domain: relative pronouns and complementizers
3.2. Resumptive pronouns
3.3. Relative markers
3.3.1. Apparent relative markers: classifiers
3.3.2. Real relative markers?
4. A fine-grained typology of relative elements
4.1. A classification of relative elements
4.2. Combinations of relative elements
5. Conclusion
2. Differences between restrictive and appositive relatives
2.1. The antecedent
2.2. Relative elements and pied piping
2.3. Extraposition and stacking
2.4. Scope, binding and reconstruction
2.5. Intonation
3. Misconceptions on appositive relatives
3.2. Other issues
4. The syntax of appositive relatives: different views
5. A coordination analysis of apposition
5.1. Apposition, specification and coordination
5.2. Appositive relatives are specifying conjuncts
5.2.1. Appositive relatives behave as appositions
5.2.2. Some cross-linguistic considerations
5.3. Appositive relatives as free relatives in apposition
5.3.1. Outline
5.3.2. Some notes on the syntax of free relatives
5.3.3. Appositive relatives are ‘false’ free relatives
5.4. The behaviour of appositives explained
5.5. Matching effects
6. Conclusion
2. Extraposition of relative clauses
3. Extraposition in a broader perspective
4. Analyses of extraposition
5. Properties of extraposition: an evaluation of different types of analyses
5.1. Theoretical evaluation
5.2. Empirical evaluation
5.2.1. Extraposition from any constituent
5.2.2. Extraposition from embedded positions
5.2.3. Mirror effects
5.2.4. No preposing
5.2.5. No left position
5.2.6. The Right Roof Constraint
5.2.7. No stranding in the middlefield
5.2.8. Kaan’s generalization
5.2.9. Islandhood of extraposed material
5.2.10. Optionality
5.2.11. Binding at the base
5.2.12. Split antecedent
5.2.13. Question formation
5.3. Summary and conclusion
6. Asyndetic specifying coordination and ellipsis
6.1. Advantages of ellipsis in specifying coordination
6.2. Coordination as behindance
6.3. Rules on ellipsis
7. Extraposition in general
8. Conclusion
Appendix: example sentences
3. Attributive possessives in Dutch, German and English
3.1. Various possessive configurations
3.2. Case in possessive constructions
3.3. Empty prepositions
3.4. Prenominal possession
3.5. A brief evaluation of potential alternatives
3.6. Summary and conclusion
4. Possessive relatives
4.1. Outline of the data
4.2. Analysis
5. (Heavy) pied piping in relative clauses
5.1. Pied piping and preposition stranding
5.2. Heavy pied piping
Appendix: special constructions
A1. The Saxon genitive
A2. Multiple objects and the English double genitive
A3. Independent possessives in Dutch
A4. Qualitatives
Samenvatting in het Nederlands (Summary in Dutch)
Appendix III Compendium of syntactic analyses of relative clauses
A. Restrictive and appositive adnominal relatives
B. Circumnominal relatives
C. Correlative constructions
Thematic ordering
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De Vries, M. the Syntax of Relativizacion

De Vries, M. the Syntax of Relativizacion

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Published by Lisi Perez Muñoz

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Published by: Lisi Perez Muñoz on Jan 17, 2012
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